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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study subjects by tertiles of change in dietary phylloquinone intake (μg/day)

From: Association between dietary phylloquinone intake and peripheral metabolic risk markers related to insulin resistance and diabetes in elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk

Characteristics All subjects (n=510) P
Tertile 1 Tertile 2 Tertile 3
(−718.2 to −69.9) (−26.8 to 69.4) (70.5 to 767.5)
Clinical characteristics     
Men/women, n 80/92 68/107 78/85 0.194
Age, years 66.8 ± 6.1 68.1 ± 6.2 66.6 ± 5.7 0.030
BMI, kg/m2 29.39 ± 3.17 29.21 ± 3.18 29.17 ± 3.05 0.608
Waist circumference, cm 100.6 ± 8.6 100.5 ± 9.2 100.9 ± 8.9 0.940
Current smoker, n (%) 26 (15.1) 29 (16.6) 16 (9.8) 0.561
Type 2 diabetes, n (%), 95 (55.2) 100 (57.1) 85 (52.1) 0.650
Overweight/Obesity, n (%) 159 (92.4) 162 (92.6) 149 (91.4) 0.911
Hypertension, n (%) 156 (90.7) 164 (93.7) 148 (90.8) 0.121
Dyslipydemia, n (%) 103 (61.7) 116 (68.6) 92 (57.9) 0.511
Intervention group MD+VOO/MD+nuts/CD, n 44/54/74 64/57/54 76/45/42 0.001
Leisure-time physical activity, METS-min/day 277.8 ± 261.9 263.0 ± 247.8 294.2 ± 279.4 0.313
Metabolic risk markers     
C-Peptide (ng/mL) 1.41 (1.34 to 1.49) 1.33 (1.24 to 1.44) 1.34 (1.25 to 1.42) 0.374
Ghrelin (pg/mL) 12.88 (11.95 to 3.89) 13.38 (12.31 to 14.54) 12.77 (11.75 to 13.87) 0.685
GIP (pg/mL) 92.55 (84.76 to 101.05) 98.40 (89.70 to 107.95) 85.72 (78.25 to 93.91) 0.107
GLP-1 (ng/mL) 1.22 (1.09 to 1.36) 1.31 (1.17 to 1.48) 1.16 (1.03 to 1.30) 0.312
IL-6 (pg/ml) 9.96 (8.80 to 11.27) 10.88 (9.63 to 12.29) 8.99 (7.93 to 10.19) 0.102
Leptin (ng/mL) 2.87 (2.60 to 3.17) 3.20 (2.88 to 3.57) 2.91 (2.63 to 3.22) 0.262
PAI-1 (ng/mL) 3.20 (3.05 to 3.37) 3.28 (3.11 to 3.46) 3.37 (3.21 to 3.54) 0.378
Resistin (ng/mL) 0.98 (0.92 to 1.05) 1.05 (0.98 to 1.12) 1.01 (0.94 to 1.08) 0.413
TNF (pg/mL) 13.36 (11.57 to 15.44) 13.76 (11.89 to 15.93) 11.35 (9.80 to 13.14) 0.145
Visfatin (ng/mL) 4.13 (3.53 to 4.84) 4.54 (3.85 to 5.37) 3.70 (3.13 to 4.37) 0.225
Adiponectin (μg/mL) 48.87 (42.67 to 55.98) 49.51 (42.68 to 57.43) 42.37 (35.45 to 50.64) 0.302
Adipsin (μg/mL) 1.12 (1.01 to 1.24) 1.14 (1.03 to 1.28) 0.91 (0.77 to 1.08) 0.029
  1. Data are given as mean (SD) or number (%) unless otherwise indicated. Metabolic risk markers are expressed as geometric means (IC95%). P values of the difference between tertils of change in dietary phylloquinone intake (ANOVA for the continuous variables and a χ 2 test for categorical variables). MD+VOO Mediterranean diet + Virgin Olive Oil, MD+nuts Mediterranean diet + Nuts, CD Control diet, BMI body mass index, GLP-1 glucagon-like peptide 1, GIP glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide; IL-6 interleukin-6, PAI-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, TNF-α tumor necrosis factor-α.