Expression of insulin signalling and inflammatory markers in fructose-induced insulin-resistance in rats. There was no change in IR expression (Figures 4A). Significant inhibition of p-IR, AMPK, p-AMPK, IRS-1, p-IRS was revealed in the liver in insulin resistant rats. Treatment with metformin reversed the inhibitory effects and improved the expression of these molecules (Figures 4B, C, D, E, and F). Real-time PCR shows increased expression of JNK and NFKB in MG or fructose treated SMCs (Figure 4G and H). Treatment with metformin attenuated this effect (Figures G and H). * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01 vs. the Chow control, ‡P < 0.01 vs. MG group, §P < 0.01 vs. Fructose group.