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Table 1 Characteristics of study subjects

From: Prevalence and clinical characteristics of carotid atherosclerosis in newly diagnosed patients with ketosis-onset diabetes: a cross-sectional study

Variables Control subjects Ketosis-onset type 2 diabetes Non-ketotic type 2 diabetes P value *P value #P value
  (n=79) (n=208) (n=215)    
Male (%) 46 (58.2%) 153 (73.6%) 122 (56.7%) 0.001 0.009 0.01
Age (years) 50±7 49±15 56±14 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Smoking (n, %) 44 (55.7%) 84 (40.4%) 65 (30.2%) <0.001 <0.001 0.740
Alcohol (n, %) 44 (55.7%) 37 (17.8%) 36 (16.7%) <0.001 <0.001 0.311
Hypertension (%) 17 (21.5%) 81 (38.9%) 98 (45.6%) 0.001 0.026 0.685
BMI (kg/m2) 24.64±3.5 25.05±3.54 25.16±3.59 0.548 0.095 0.251
WHR 0.90±0.05 0.91±0.06 0.91±0.06 0.051 0.128 0.894
Weight category     0.648 0.365 0.631
underweight 0 (0.00%) 3 (1.4%) 2 (0.9%) —— —— ——
overweight 23 (29.1%) 48 (23.1%) 48 (22.3%) —— —— ——
obesity 32 (40.5%) 97 (46.6%) 109 (50.7%) —— —— ——
SBP (mmHg) 129±14 127±15 130±17 0.162 0.907 0.523
DBP (mmHg) 84±12 81±11 81±9 0.039 0.073 0.729
*TG (mmol/l) 1.52 (1.05-2.04) 1.44 (1.00-2.19) 1.49 (1.08-2.21) 0.711 0.394 0.831
TC (mmol/l) 5.05±1.10 5.03±1.22 4.82±1.22 0.163 0.080 0.035
HDL (mmol/l) 1.45±0.34 1.05±0.27 1.11±0.25 <0.001 <0.001 0.390
LDL (mmol/l) 3.78±1.24 3.40±1.03 3.12±0.97 <0.001 <0.001 0.002
*FPG (mmol/l) 5.36 (5.00-5.66) 9.74 (7.63-12.45) 7.53 (6.39-9.67) <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
*2h PPG (mmol/l) 5.00 (4.48-6.08) 16.66 (12.94-20.79) 13.14 (10.39-16.66) <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
*FCP —— 1.23 (0.74-1.92) 2.02 (1.36-2.93) <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
*2h PCP —— 2.31 (1.55-3.66) 4.65 (3.12-6.35) <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
HA1C (%) 5.44±0.43 11.83±2.05 9.81±2.58 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
  1. Values are expressed as the mean±S.D, median with interquartile range, or percentages. * Non-normal distribution of continuous variables.
  2. P-value: The p-values were not adjusted for age and sex for the trend.
  3. *P-value: The *p-values were adjusted for age and sex for the trend.
  4. #P-value: The #p-values were adjusted for age and sex for ketosis-onset type 2 diabetes vs.non-ketotic type 2 diabetes.