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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics for males and females a

From: Lipoprotein lipase links vitamin D, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional epidemiological study

  Males Females P
N 1326 1382  
Basic characteristics    
Age, y 47.6 ± 11.3 49.4 ± 13.1 <0.001
BMI, kg/m2 25.7 ± 3.8 25.2 ± 3.3 0.002
Physical activity level 1.45 ± 0.40 1.49 ± 0.42 0.011
Insulin Resistance, n (%) 288 (21.7) 240 (17.4) 0.004
Type 2 diabetes, n (%) 243 (18.3) 189 (13.7) <0.001
Obesity, n (%) 273 (20.6) 283 (20.5) 0.943
Alcohol use, n (%) 797 (60.1) 170 (12.3) <0.001
Smoking, n (%)    <0.001
Never 541 (40.8) 1273 (92.1)  
Past 164 (12.4) 23 (1.7)  
Current 621 (46.8) 86 (6.2)  
Clinical variables    
25(OH)D, ng/ml 25.7 ± 6.7 25.1 ± 6.4 0.017
FG, mmol/L 5.1 (3.6-9.2) 4.9 (3.4-10.3) 0.054
PG, mmol/L 7.9 (3.8-14.5) 7.6 (3.5-13.6) 0.011
HbAlc, % 4.3 (3.4-11.7) 3.9 (3.3-11.5) 0.002
Insulin, mU/L 6.1 (1.5-17.5) 6.0 (1.4-16.8) 0.051
HOMA-IR 1.4 (0.3-6.2) 1.3 (0.3-6.0) 0.011
TC, mmol/L 4.8 ± 1.1 4.9 ± 1.2 0.024
TG, mmol/L 1.7 (0.5-6.1) 1.5 (0.4-5.9) <0.001
HDL-C, mmol/L 1.5 (0.8-2.3) 1.5 (0.7-2.4) 0.286
LDL-C, mmol/L 3.0 (0.6-5.2) 2.9 (0.5-5.4) 0.118
apoA, mmol/L 1.8 ± 0.4 2.0 ± 0.4 <0.001
apoB, mmol/L 0.8 ± 0.2 0.7 ± 0.3 <0.001
FFAs, μmol/L 723.8 ± 293.7 729.4 ± 265.4 0.602
LPL, U/L 653.1 ± 187.8 664.3 ± 193.5 0.127
  1. a Data are presented as n(%), means ± SD or median (range). χ2 test or ANOVA were adopted to compare differences between males and females.
  2. Abbreviations: FFAs, free fatty acids; FG, fasting serum glucose; HOMA-IR, Homeostasis model of assessment - insulin resistance; LPL, lipoprotein lipase; PG, 2 h post-load glucose; TC, total cholesterol; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TG, triglyceride.