Measurement of blood glucose, mean arterial pressure, oxidative stress, and cardiac myocyte apoptosis. Blood glucose values shown are from animals before injecting STZ and after 10 wks of diabetes in different groups (A). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was calculated from blood pressure values measured through carotid artery cannulation following 10 wks of diabetes (B). Apoptosis was measured by TUNEL staining of heart sections and is represented as TUNEL positive nuclei as a percentage of total nuclei (C). Oxidative stress was measured by DHE staining (D and E). The staining intensity was calculated from five images per heart, three hearts per group and normalized to the section area (D). Representative images of DHE staining are shown (E). Values are expressed as the mean ± SEM. *P < 0.05 vs. before STZ or Control, #P < 0.05 vs. STZ + Veh.