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Table 1 Characteristics of 1275 study participants according to categories of glucose regulation: the KORA F4 study a

From: Plasma copeptin levels are inversely associated with intima-media-thickness in men: the population-based KORA F4 study

  All subjects NGT Prediabetes T2D pb
n 1275 911 224 140 -
Age (years) 56.6 ± 12.7 53.4 ± 12.2 63.6 ± 10.5 66.1 ± 8.6 0.001#
Sex (male) (n (%)) 624 (48.9) 419 (46.0) 120 (53.6) 85 (60.7) 0.003###
BMI (kg/m2) 27.4 ± 4.5 26.5 ± 4.2 29.4 ± 4.3 30.6 ± 4.4 0.001#
Waist (cm) 93.3 ± 13.6 90.2 ± 12.9 99.4 ± 11.9 103.9 ±11.7 0.001#
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 122.1 ± 17.7 119.0 ± 16.7 128.9 ± 18.1 131.3 ± 16.7 0.001#
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 75.1 ± 9.6 74.8 ± 9.4 76.8 ± 9.9 74.7 ± 10.2 0.003#
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.47 ± 0.37 1.51 ± 0.38 1.41 ± 0.35 1.29 ± 0.29 0.001#
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.52 ± 0.88 3.49 ± 0.86 3.80 ± 0.92 3.28 ± 0.85 0.001#
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 102.0 (71.0,149.0) 93.0 (65.0; 136.0) 126.0 (93.0; 172.5) 130.5 (92.0; 206.0) 0.001##
hsCRP (mg/l) 1.10 (0.54; 2.42) 0.935 (0.46; 1.95) 1.71 (0.92; 3.40) 1.70 (0.86; 3.76) 0.001##
Estimated GFR (ml/min) 84.0 ± 18.2 85.8 ± 17.6 81.3 ± 18.2 76.8 ± 19.8 0.12#
Former stroke or MI (n (%)) 58 (4.6) 30 (3.3) 10 (4.5) 18 (12.9) 0.03###
Active or former smoker (n (%)) 728 (57.1) 534 (58.6) 110 (49.1) 84 (60.0) 0.049###
High alcohol consumption (n (%))c 249 (19.5) 179 (19.7) 42 (18.8) 28 (20.0) 0.92###
Hypertension (n (%))d 500 (39.3) 265 (29.1) 127 (56.7) 108 (77.1) 0.001###
Physically inactive (n (%))e 529 (41.5) 341 (37.4) 110 (49.1) 78 (55.7) 0.001###
Copeptin (pmol/l)      
Mean ± SD 10.46 ± 16.46 9.97 ± 16.73 9.94 ± 7.20 14.5 ± 23.4 0.02##
Median (25th percentile, 75th percentile) 8.91 (6.13; 12.00) 8.59 (5.90; 11.35) 9.10 (6.42; 12.64) 10.84 (7.80; 15.16)  
Intima-media-thickness (mm)      
Mean ± SD 0.85 ± 0.14 0.82 ± 0.13 0.91 ± 0.14 0.92 ± 0.14 0.19##
Median (25th percentile, 75th percentile) 0.83 (0.74; 0.93) 0.80 (0.73; 0.89) 0.90 (0.80; 1.01) 0.90 (0.82; 1.02)  
  1. All analyses are adjusted for age and sex.
  2. Abbreviations: NGT normal glucose tolerance, T2D type 2 diabetes mellitus, BMI body mass index, MI myocardial infarction, hsCRP high sensitive C-reactive protein (serum).
  3. aMean ± standard deviation, median (25th percentile, 75th percentile), proportions (%).
  4. b #F-Test; ##log F-Test; ###logistic regression.
  5. cHigh alcohol intake: ≥ 40 g/day in men, ≥ 20 g/day in women.
  6. dSystolic blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mm Hg or antihypertensive medication.
  7. eLess than 1 hour of physical activity per week.