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Table 2 Adjusted hazard ratios for cardiovascular disease by the haemoglobin A1c level and group with antidiabetic medication

From: Haemoglobin A1c even within non-diabetic level is a predictor of cardiovascular disease in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama Study

  HbA1c level Antidiabetic medication
  ≤ 5.0 5.1–5.4 5.5–6.4 ≤ 6.5
No. of subjects at risk 955 923   736   104   133  
Total cardiovascular disease (n) 19 31   39   12   18  
Age- and sex-adjusted HR (95% CI) 1.00 1.56 (0.88–2.78) 2.19 (1.26–3.81)b 4.94 (2.39–10.2)b 4.53 (2.36–8.69)b
Multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) 1.00 1.60 (0.90–2.85) 2.26 (1.29–3.95)b 4.43 (2.09–9.37)b 5.15 (2.65–10.0)b
Coronary heart disease (n) 8 10   17   5   8  
Age- and sex-adjusted HR (95% CI) 1.00 1.24 (0.49–3.16) 2.28 (0.98–5.31) 4.63 (1.51–14.2)b 4.30 (1.61–11.5)b
Multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) 1.00 1.15 (0.45–2.93) 2.11 (0.90–4.95) 3.55 (1.11–11.3)a 4.39 (1.60–12.0)b
Ischaemic stroke (n) 5 13   15   6   7  
Age- and sex-adjusted HR (95% CI) 1.00 2.42 (0.86–6.82) 3.19 (1.15–8.83)a 9.47 (2.88–31.1)b 6.99 (2.18–22.4)b
Multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) 1.00 2.57 (0.91–7.29) 3.57 (1.27–10.0)a 9.65 (2.81–33.1)b 8.33 (2.54–27.3)b
Haemorrhagic stroke (n) 6 8   10   2   3  
Age- and sex-adjusted HR (95% CI) 1.00 1.26 (0.44–3.66) 1.77 (0.64–4.91) 2.58 (0.52–12.8) 2.38 (0.58–9.66)
Multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) 1.00 1.42 (0.48–4.14) 1.87 (0.66–5.25) 2.41 (0.46–12.5) 2.70 (0.65–11.3)
  1. Abbreviations: HbA1c, Haemoglobin A1c; HR, Hazard ratio; CI, Confidence interval.
  2. ap < 0.05, bp < 0.01 vs. Haemoglobin A1c ≤5.0%.
  3. Multivariable adjustment was made for age, sex, hypertension, electrocardiogram abnormalities, body mass index, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, current smoking, current alcohol use, and regular exercise.