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Table 4 Serum electrolyte levels of subjects among the groups

From: Serum electrolyte levels in relation to macrovascular complications in Chinese patients with diabetes mellitus

Electrolyte levels NGR (Group I) IGR (Group II) DM (Group III) P-value
All I vs. II II vs. III I vs. III Linear trend
Overall n = 1170 n = 389 n = 343      
Na+ (mmol/L) 142.1 ± 2.0 142.1 ± 2.0 141.0 ± 2.4 <0.01 1.000 <0.001 <0.001 <0.01
K+ (mmol/L) 4.21 ± 0.37 4.17 ± 0.38 4.26 ± 0.37 0.01 0.188 0.007 0.172 0.25
Ca2+ (mmol/L) 2.33 ± 0.09 2.34 ± 0.09 2.36 ± 0.11 <0.01 0.110 0.034 <0.001 <0.01
Mg2+ (mmol/L) 0.91 ± 0.07 0.92 ± 0.08 0.88 ± 0.08 <0.01 0.643 <0.001 <0.001 <0.01
Men n = 458 n = 153 n = 147      
Na+ (mmol/L) 142.0 ± 2.0 142.3 ± 1.9 141.0 ± 2.2 <0.01 0.501 <0.001 <0.001 <0.01
K+ (mmol/L) 4.22 ± 0.39 4.14 ± 0.38 4.26 ± 0.40 0.04 0.128 0.040 0.930 0.71
Ca2+ (mmol/L) 2.32 ± 0.09 2.32 ± 0.09 2.34 ± 0.10 <0.01 1.000 0.121 0.002 <0.01
Mg2+ (mmol/L) 0.92 ± 0.07 0.92 ± 0.08 0.89 ± 0.08 <0.01 1.000 <0.001 <0.001 <0.01
Women n = 712 n = 236 n = 196      
Na+ (mmol/L) 142.1 ± 2.0 141.9 ± 2.1 141.1 ± 2.5 <0.01 1.000 <0.001 <0.001 <0.01
K+ (mmol/L) 4.21 ± 0.36 4.19 ± 0.37 4.26 ± 0.34 0.14 1.000 0.169 0.309 0.22
Ca2+ (mmol/L) 2.34 ± 0.09 2.35 ± 0.09 2.37 ± 0.11 <0.01 0.143 0.217 0.001 <0.01
Mg2+ (mmol/L) 0.91 ± 0.07 0.92 ± 0.08 0.87 ± 0.09 <0.01 1.000 <0.001 <0.001 <0.01
  1. Descriptive values are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation. Differences are assessed using the one-way ANOVA. Bonferroni correction is applied for multiple testing. Linear trends of electrolyte levels within groups were tested.
  2. Abbreviations: NGR Normal glucose regulation, IGR Impaired glucose regulation, DM Diabetes mellitus, Na Sodium, K Potassium, Ca Calcium, Mg, Magnesium.