Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline demographic data, echocardiographic characteristics, and adipose tissue measurements of the 149 patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis included in the study

From: Accumulation of epicardial fat rather than visceral fat is an independent risk factor for left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis

  No LVDD LVDD  
Baseline characteristics (n = 84) (n = 65) p
Age (years) 53.4 ± 14.8 57.8 ± 11.7 0.035*
Women (%) 43 (51) 40 (62) 0.25
HTN (n) 50 56 <0.001*
DM (n) 23 25 0.16
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dL) 96.2 ± 19.5 97.3 ± 11.8 0.69
HDL (mg/dL) 38.9 ± 8.3 41.7 ± 12.6 0.26
LDL (mg/dL) 83.2 ± 33.5 99.1 ± 38.0 0.05*
TG (mg/dL) 125.3 ± 85.3 142.4 ± 96.1 0.23
Height (cm) 163 ± 5.9 162 ± 6.5 0.30
Body weight (kg) 59 ± 10.5 60 ± 11.7 0.82
BMI (kg/m2) 23 ± 3.9 24 ± 3.2 0.46
CRP (mg/dL) 0.74 ± 0.99 2.13 ± 1.73 <0.001*
Primary renal diagnosis    
DM 29 25 0.61
CGN 25 17 0.59
Other 30 23 0.87
Time on PD (h) 18.9 ± 1.6 19.1 ± 1.3 0.46
Kt/V 1.72 ± 0.34 1.91 ± 0.25 0.57
Residual renal function (mL/min) 1.94 ± 0.31 2.31 ± 0.22 0.25
Echocardiographic characteristics
LV end-diastolic diameter (mm) 48.4 ± 6.7 50.9 ± 7.4 0.03*
LV end-systolic diameter (mm) 30.4 ± 6.2 32.5 ± 8.1 0.04*
LA diameter (mm) 32.6 ± 6.5 37.3 ± 5.8 <0.001*
LV ejection fraction (%) 64.4 ± 7.9 66.2 ± 9.1 0.17
E (cm/s) 71.4 ± 20.0 89.4 ± 32.0 <0.001*
A (cm/s) 88.6 ± 20.2 104.8 ± 30.1 <0.001*
E/A 0.97 ± 0.46 0.77 ± 0.35 0.003*
DT (ms) 200.9 ± 45.2 238.7 ± 78.7 <0.001*
e’ (cm/s) 7.6 ± 2.4 5.7 ± 2.0 <0.001*
E/e’ 10.2 ± 4.0 17.0 ± 8.1 <0.001*
LV mass index (g/cm3) 213.4 ± 63.9 245.3 ± 77.6 0.03*
EpF (mm) 2.8 ± 1.6 5.1 ± 2.6 <0.001*
Adipose tissue distribution    
Total fat (cm2) 242.7 ± 87.2 335.0 ± 207.5 0.001*
Subcutaneous fat (cm2) 123.8 ± 60.6 170.2 ± 79.3 0.001*
Visceral fat (cm2) 89.3 ± 60.4 128.1 ± 77.1 0.006*
Peritoneal fat (cm2) 52.2 ± 45.9 88.5 ± 71.2 0.003*
Retroperitoneal fat (cm2) 385.0 ± 241.5 481.3 ± 289.1 0.07
  1. The data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation unless otherwise indicated.
  2. Abbreviations: LVDD left ventricular diastolic dysfunction; BMI body mass index; WC waist circumference; DM diabetes mellitus; CGN chronic glomerular nephritis; HTN hypertension; HOMA homeostasis model of insulin resistance; CRP C-reactive protein; LDL low density lipoprotein; HDL high density lipoprotein; TG triglyceride; PD peritoneal dialysis; kt/v, k = dialyzer clearance of urea, t = dialysis time, v = volume of distribution of urea, approximately equal to the patient’s total body water; LA left atrial; LV left ventricular; E mitral inflow E wave; A mitral inflow A wave; DT mitral inflow deceleration time; e’, peak annular early diastolic velocity of the lateral mitral annulus in tissue Doppler imaging; IVRT interventricular relaxation time; EpF epicardial fat. *, p < 0.05.