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Table 1 Demographics, traditional CV risk factors, comorbidities and the use of medication at baseline, stratified by outcome

From: Interleukin-6 and activin A are independently associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in type 2 diabetes: the prospective Asker and Bærum Cardiovascular Diabetes (ABCD) cohort study

  All (n = 135) Patients with event (n = 26) Patients without event (n = 109) P value
Conventional CV risk markers
Age (yrs) 58.5 ± 10.0 64.2 ± 8.6 57.2 ± 9.9 0.001
Females n (%) 35 (26) 29 (27) 6 (23) 0.81
Diabetes duration (yrs) 6.5 ± 6.3 5.6 ± 4.8 6.6 ± 6.4 0.46
BMI (kg/m2) 30.0 ± 5.4 29.7 ± 6.2 30.1 ± 5.2 0.75
Systolic BP (mmHg) 142 ± 20 144 ± 21 142 ± 20 0.60
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 83 ± 10 83 ± 13 83 ± 9 0.81
HbA1c (%/mmol/mol) 7.6 ± 1.6/59.3 ± 17.0 7.5 ± 1.6/58.3 ± 17.0 7.6 ± 1.6/59.6 ± 17.1 0.74
FBG (mmol/L) 9.5 ± 3.2 9.4 ± 3.2 9.6 ± 3.3 0.80
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.9 ± 1.0 4.8 ± 1.4 5.0 ± 1.0 0.47
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.8 ± 0.9 2.7 ± 0.8 2.9 ± 0.9 0.23
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.3 ± 0.4 1.2 ± 0.3 1.3 ± 0.4 0.29
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.9 ± 1.8 2.2 ± 3.2 1.8 ± 1.2 0.56
Creatinine (μmol/L) 78.5 ± 15.3 86.7 ± 21.1 76.5 ± 12.9 0.025
Albuminuria (μg/min) 16.0 (9.0, 30.5) 22.0 (9.8, 39.0) 15.0 (9.0, 28.3) 0.091
Microalbuminuria n (%) 56 (42) 14 (54) 42 (39) 0.17
LVEF (%) 63 ± 8 59 ± 8 64 ± 8 0.029
Daily smoking n (%) 16 (12) 3 (12) 13 (12) 0.87
Known CAD at inclusion n (%) 16 (12) 8 (31) 8 (7) 0.002
Known CVD at inclusion n (%)* 22 (16) 10 (39) 12 (11) 0.001
Framingham 10 years risk of CHD (%) 9.6 ± 6.6 12.7 ± 6.9 8.9 ± 6.4 0.022
Medications
Numbers of Blood glucose lowering medications 1.2 ± 0.9 1.4 ± 0.9 1.2 ± 0.9 0.29
Numbers of BP-lowering medications† 0.9 ± 1.0 1.1 ± 1.2 0.9 ± 1.0 0.39
On statins n (%) 61 (45) 14 (54) 47 (50) 0.38
On ASA n (%) 45 (33) 12 (46) 33 (30) 0.16
  1. Data given as means ± SD, medians (interquartile range) or proportions.
  2. Abbreviations: CV Cardiovascular, BMI Body mass index, BP Blood Pressure, FBG Fasting blood glucose, LVEF Left ventricular ejection fraction, CAD Coronary artery disease, CVD Cardiovascular disease, CHD Coronary heart disease, ACEI Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB Angiotensin II receptor blocker, ASA Acetylsalicylic acid.
  3. * = known history of CAD, stroke or peripheral artery disease at inclusion.
  4. † = ACEI/ARBs/beta blockers/Ca-blockers/diuretics/combined therapy.