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Table 1 Baseline characteristics by group

From: 24-hour central aortic systolic pressure and 24-hour central pulse pressure are related to diabetic complications in type 1 diabetes – a cross-sectional study

  All patients Controls Normoalbuminuria Elevated albuminuria Controls vs. short duration, normo-albuminuria Long duration, normo- vs. micro- vs. macroalbuminuria
    Short duration Long duration Micro Macro p p
n = 629 n = 86 n = 69 n = 211 n = 163 n = 186
Female (%) 44 44 39 53 38 42 0.84 0.010
Age (years) 54 ± 13 49 ± 12 39 ± 13 57 ± 11 58 ± 13 55 ± 10 <0.001 0.031
Diabetes duration (years) 34 ± 15 n/a 6 ± 3 38 ± 11 35 ± 15 38 ± 11 N/A 0.056
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 64 ± 13 35 ± 3 65 ± 13 62 ± 10 65 ± 13 68 ± 14 <0.001 <0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.7 ± 0.9 5.5 ± 0.9 4.7 ± 0.8 4.8 ± 0.7 4.6 ± 0.8 4.6 ± 1.0 <0.001 0.23
Body mass index (kg/m2) 25.5 ± 5.9 26.6 ± 5.2 24.2 ± 3.2 25.0 ± 3.8 25.8 ± 4.1 26.3 ± 9.1 0.001 0.045
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 83 ± 28 96 ± 16 107 ± 21 90 ± 20 85 ± 26 62 ± 29 <0.001 <0.001
*UAER (mg/24-h) 18 (2–8271) 14 (4–157) 10 (4–39) 7 (2–236) 33 (4–4512) 130 (4–8271) 0.36 <0.001
Smokers (%) 21 6 23 18 19 25 0.002 0.18
Antihypertensive treatment (%) 71 0 0 56 90 98 N/A <0.001
Cardiovascular disease (%) 21 4 1 14 30 29 0.14 <0.001
Left ventricular hypertrophy (%) 4 7 7 4 4 4 0.91 0.82
Autonomic dysfunction (%) 60 7 7 53 64 83 0.48 <0.001
Retinopathy (%) 81 0 23 83 84 96 <0.001 <0.001
  1. Data represents percentage (%), mean ± SD or median (range). P-values are for unadjusted comparisons (ANOVA) between groups.
  2. *Some patients with previously persistent macroalbuminuria had values <300 mg/24 h at the time of investigation.