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Table 1 Patients’ general characteristics and echocardiographic data

From: Prognostic value of coronary flow reserve assessed by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography on long-term outcome in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes without overt coronary artery disease

Variables CFR ≥ 2.5, n = 82 CFR < 2.5, n = 29 p
Age (years) 62 ± 9 67 ± 9 0.02
Male 43 (52.0) 17 (59.0) 0.57
BMI (kg/m2) 24.5 ± 3.7 23.3 ± 3.1 0.11
FBS (mmol/l) 8.6 ± 2.6 8.4 ± 2.2 0.79
HbA1c (%) [NGSP] 7.7 ± 1.2 7.7 ± 1.0 0.90
eGFR (ml/min./1.73 m2) 80.6 ± 16.9 77.2 ± 19.3 0.39
Hypertension 48 (59.3) 19 (63.3) 0.51
Dyslipidemia 43 (53.1) 15 (50.0) 0.95
Smoking 15 (18.5) 6 (20.0) 0.78
Diabetes treatment    
 Sulfonylurea 45 (55.6) 15 (50.0) 0.77
 Biguanide 16 (19.8) 8 (26.7) 0.36
 Thiazolidinedione 24 (29.6) 5 (16.7) 0.21
 alpha-glucosidase inhibitor 36 (44.4) 7 (23.3) 0.06
 Insulin 13 (16.0) 6 (20.0) 0.55
Other treatment    
 Statin 21 (25.9) 9 (30.0) 0.57
 antihypertensive agents 38 (46.3) 13 (44.8) 0.89
EF (%) 67.7 ± 6.2 66.3 ± 6.1 0.56
LVMI (g/m2) 98.9 ± 23.3 88.9 ± 27.2 0.32
MDV baseline (cm/sec) 20 ± 5 22 ± 5 0.08
MDV hyperemia (cm/sec) 62 ± 14 52 ± 13 0.002
CFR 3.09 ± 0.38 2.33 ± 0.13 <0.001
  1. Data are presented as number (%) or mean ± SD.
  2. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, FBS fasting blood sugar,HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, EF ejection fraction, LVMI left ventricular mass index, SD standard deviation.