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Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Circulating alpha-klotho levels are not disturbed in patients with type 2 diabetes with and without macrovascular disease in the absence of nephropathy

  Diabetes   No Diabetes  
  No MVD (n = 11) CAD (n = 12) PAD (n = 12)   Healthy control (n = 15) CAD (n = 13) PAD (n = 14) p value
Demographics         
Age (years) 56.0 (50.0-63.0)a 65.5 (62.0-71.0) 70.5 ± (63.5-74.0)   55.0 (53.0-56.0)b 57.0 (53.0-71.0) 59.5 (53.0-64.0) p < 0.05
Sex (% male) 5 (46) 6 (50) 6 (50)   8 (53) 9 (69) 8 (57) NS
Body mass index (kg/m2) 32.6 ± 2.6c 32.2 ± 2.1c 28.5 ± 3.1   24.5 ± 0.8 27.1 ± 1.0 23.6 ± 0.9 p < 0.001
Diabetes duration (years) 14.2 ± 1.0 16.8 ± 1.5d 11.3 ± 1.6   - - - p < 0.05
Smoking (%) 3 (27) 1 (8) 2 (17)   2 (13) 5 (39) 8 (57)i p < 0.05
Metabolic variables         
WBC count (106/mL) 7.9 (5.7-11.9) 7.0 (5.8-7.4) 8.7 (7.4-10.2)   5.6 (4.4-6.4)e 5.5 (5.1-6.8) 8.1 (5.9-9.2) p < 0.05
Glucose (mmol/L) 7.1 ± 0.4f 9.7 ± 1.5f 9.5 ± 1.5f   5.3 ± 0.1 - 6.0 ± 0.6 p < 0.001
HbA1c - (%) 7.9 (7.2-9.8)f 8.3 (6.8-8.5)f 7.4 (6.6-8.4)f   5.6 (5.5-5.9) 5.8 (5.6-6.0) 5.6 (5.5-6.0) p < 0.001
- (mmol/mol) 62.8 (54.6-83.1)f 66.7 (50.8-69.4)f 57.4 (48.6-68.3)f   37.7 (36.6-41.0) 39.9 (37.7-42.1) 37.7 (36.1-42.1) p < 0.001
Cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.2 (3.6-4.7) 4.3 (3.8-5.2) 4.3 (3.8-4.5)   5.8 (5.0-6.3)g 4.0 (3.6-4.5) 4.4 (3.4-5.9) p < 0.01
Triglyceriden (mmol/L) 1.6 (1.1-2.1) 2.1 (1.7-3.0) 1.9 (1.3-2.2)   1.5 (1.0-1.8) 1.4 (0.9-2.1) 1.9 (0.9-2.8) NS
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.3 (1.2-1.4) 1.1 (1.1-1.3)h 1.1 (0.9-1.4)   1.5 (1.4-1.9) 1.2 (1.2-1.5) 1.3 (1.0-1.7) p < 0.05
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.3 (1.9-2.6) 2.1 (2.0-3.1) 2.1 (1.6-2.7)   3.6 (3.3-4.0)g 2.2 (1.9-2.8) 2.3 (1.7-3.5) p < 0.01
Creatinine (μmol/L) 64.5 (53.5-76.0) 68.5 (66.0-79.0) 68.0 (57.0-89.0)   75.0 (63.0-82.0) 80.0 (75.0-84.0) 71.0 (63.0-79.0) NS
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 97.3 (87.0-107.4) 86.1 (82.7-90.3) 80.8 (73.2-90.4)   94.9 (87.1-97.9) 90.0 (66.6-99.1) 99.7 (80.2-101.5) NS
BUN (mmol/L) 6.2 (4.7-7.0) 6.5 (5.5-7.4) 7.0 (5.9-7.9)   6.2 (5.5-7.0) 6.3 (5.9-6.9) 6.2 (4.4-6.5) NS
Phosphate (mmol/L) 1.1 ± 0.1 1.2 ± 0.1 1.4 ± 0.1   1.2 ± 0.1 1.3 ± 0.1 1.4 ± 0.1 NS
Calcium (mmol/L) 2.7 (2.5-2.8) 2.9 (2.5-3.4) 2.9 (2.4-3.2)   2.7 (2.3-2.9) 2.9 (2.6-3.1) 2.9 (2.5-3.3) NS
sKlotho (pg/mL) 581.4 (496.8-651.9) 561.0 (463.2-747.0) 493.7 (287.8-777.7)   434.7 (345.8-662.9) 490.5 (349.0-549.4) 518.9 (401.5-570.5) NS
FGF23 (RU/mL) 131.0 (118.5-147.0) 117.5 (106.0-256.0) 149.0 (120.0-237.0)   99.5 (87.0-119.0) 97.0 (88.0-112.0) 121.0 (105.0-140.0) NS
Medication         
Insulin (%) 10 (91) 11 (92) 8 (67)   - - - NS
Oral glucose-lowering 6 (55) 8 (67) 10 (83)   - - - NS
agents (%)         
Statins (%) 7 (64) 11 (92) 10 (83)   1 (7)i 13 (100)i 10 (71) p < 0.001
ACE inhibitors (%) 7 (64) 5 (42) 7 (58)   1 (7)i 10 (77)i 6 (43) p < 0.01
Angiotensin II inhibitor (%) 2 (18) 4 (33) 1 (8)   0 (0) 1 (8) 2 (14) NS
Alpha blockers (%) 1 (9) 0 (0) 0 (0)   0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) NS
Beta blockers (%) 1 (9) 7 (58) 3 (25)   1 (7)i 12 (92)i 3 (21) p < 0.001
Calcium antagonists (%) 4 (36) 7 (58)i 5 (42)   0 (0)i 1 (8) 3 (21) p < 0.01
Diuretics (%) 6 (55) 9 (75)i 6 (50)   1 (7)i 4 (31) 3 (21) p < 0.01
Antiaggregants (%) 2 (18)i 9 (75) 7 (58)   0 (0)i 12 (92)i 11 (79)i p < 0.001
Anticoagulants (%) 1 (9) 0 (0) 1 (8)   0 (0) 2 (15) 1 (7) NS
  1. Data are presented as percentage, or as mean ± SEM for normally distributed data, or as median (interquartile range) for skewed data as appropriate. Statistically significant with ANOVA compared with: adiabetes with PAD. bdiabetes with CAD, diabetes with PAD. cno diabetes with PAD, healthy control. ddiabetes with PAD. ediabetes without MVD, diabetes with PAD, no diabetes with PAD. fall groups without diabetes. gdiabetes without MVD, diabetes with PAD, no diabetes with CAD. hhealthy control. istatistically significant with χ 2 test. NS: not significant.