Effects of IFR radiation on oxidative stress, EPC mobilization after hindlimb ischemia and tissue homing in STZ-induced diabetic mice. (A) Effect of IFR on oxidative stress in ischemic muscles of STZ-induced diabetic mice. Nitrotyrosine (n = 4 per group) immunostaining of ischemic muscles extracted on day 21 in control (vehicle), and in mice that had received IFR radiation. (*p < 0.05 compared with DM-control) (B) EPCs (defined as Sca-1+/Flk-1+ cells) mobilization after tissue ischemia was determined by flow cytometry in STZ-induced diabetic mice given the vehicle, IFR or IFR + L-NAME. (*p < 0.05 compared with WT-baseline; n = 6 per group) (C) STZ-induced diabetes was created in FVB mice that received eGFP mouse bone marrow cells. By immunofluorescence staining, STZ-induced diabetic mice in IFR group had more GFP+/CD31+ double-positive cells in ischemic muscle than those in the vehicle group. (*p < 0.05 compared with DM-control; #p < 0.05 compared with DM-FIR; n = 6).