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Table 1 Advantages and Disadvantages of different Models of Diabetes mellitus

From: Acute and chronic animal models for the evaluation of anti-diabetic agents

S.No Methods Advantage Disadvantage
1(a) Pancreatectomy in dogs Resembles human type 2 diabetes due to reduced islet beta cell mass
Avoids cytotoxic effects of chemical diabetogens on other body organs
Involvement of cumbersome technical and post operative procedures
Occurrence of some other digestive problems (as a result of part of excision of exocrine portion (deficiency of amylase enzyme)
Dissection of alpha islets (glucagon secreting cells) too along with beta cells leading to problems in counter regulatory response to hypoglycemia
Mortality is comparatively higher
1(b) Alloxan induced diabetes Selective loss of pancreatic beta cells leaving other pancreatic alpha and delta cells intact
Residual insulin secretion makes the animals live long without insulin treatment
Ketosis and resulting mortality is relatively less.
Comparatively cheaper, easier to develop and maintain
Hyperglycemia develops primarily by direct cytotoxic action on the beta cells and insulin deficiency rather than consequence of insulin resistance
Less stable and reversible because of the spontaneous regeneration of beta cells
May produce toxic effects on other body organs
Variability of results on development of hyperglycaemia is perhaps high
1(c) Streptozotocin induced diabetes Diabetes induced by streptozotocin is more stable
This model can be used for longer experimental study
Comparatively costlier to develop
Mortality is relatively more
1(d) Hormone induced diabetes Stable and irreversible diabetes can be induced
Ketonuria and ketonemia occurs
Not developed in small laboratory animals
Comparatively costlier to develop
May affect other organs
1(e) Virus induced diabetes Stable and irreversible diabetes can be induced Comparatively costlier to develop
It develops Type 1 diabetes Handling of virus requires a technical expert
1(f) Other diabetogenic compounds Comparatively cheaper to develop
Mortality is relatively less
Can be developed in all type of experimental animals
May affect other organs
Variability of results on development of hyperglycaemia is high
1(g) Insulin deficiency due to insulin antibodies State of insulin deficiency occurs
Induce a transient diabetic syndrome
Comparatively costlier to develop
Reversible at lower doses
Ketonemia, ketonuria, glucosuria, and acidosis occurs in higher dose
2(a) Spontaneously diabetic rats Hyperglycemia persists for several days A diabetes and obesity symptom overlaps
Not identical to those in human disease
2(b) Spontaneously diabetic mice Hyperlipidemia can be studied as lipid contents increases Polyphagia and polyuria occurs
2(c) Chinese hamsters Handling is comparatively difficult than rats and mice Ketonuria, polyuria, polyphagia, polydipsia occurs
2(d) Other species with inherited diabetic symptoms Handling is comparatively difficult than rats and mice Comparatively costlier to develop
2(e) Transgenic animals In vivo effect of single gene or mutation on diabetes can be studied
Dissection of complex genetics of type 2 diabetes become easier
Costly method
Experts are required
3 (a) Invertebrate animal model Lesser time is required
No use of vertebrates
Comparatively cheaper
The physiology and anatomy matches less with humans
3 (b) Diet Induced metabolic dysregulation Baboons and humans are genetically, anatomically, and physiologically very similar
Cardiac complications can be studied
Handling of baboon is somewhat difficult
Veterinarian is required
Costly model