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Table 1 Description of the study population

From: Gender disparities in diabetes and coronary heart disease medication among patients with type 2 diabetes: results from the DIANA study

  Men Women p-value
  (n = 624) (n = 522)  
Variables of interest n % n %  
Age in years (mean, SD*) 67.2 (10.1) 69.7 (10.5)  
Age in years      
 ≤59 137 22.0 84 16.1  
 60 - 69 193 30.9 129 24.7  
 70 - 79 239 38.3 231 44.3  
 ≥80 55 8.8 78 14.9 0.0001
Years of school education      
 ≤9 433 70.9 395 76.9  
 10 - 12 104 17.0 94 18.2  
 ≥13 74 12.1 25 4.9 0.0001
Marital status      
 Single/ widowed/ divorced 112 18.1 209 40.2  
 Married 508 81.9 311 59.8 <0.0001
Occupational status      
 Employed 158 26.5 78 15.7  
 Retired 403 67.5 318 63.9  
 Housewife 0 0 80 16.1  
 Other 36 6.0 22 4.4 <0.0001
Smoking history      
 Never 174 28.0 375 72.0  
 Ex-smoker 355 57.2 100 19.2  
 Current smoker 92 14.8 46 8.8 <0.0001
Alcohol consumption      
 Abstainer 139 22.3 283 54.2 <0.0001
Body mass index (kg/m²)      
 <25 76 12.2 78 14.9  
 25 - <30 255 40.9 187 35.8  
 30 - <35 194 31.1 161 30.8  
 ≥35 98 15.8 96 18.4 0.19
Glycemic control by HbA 1c      
 Good (≤6.4%) 241 38.6 213 41.1  
 Moderate (6.5 - 7.4%) 239 38.3 212 40.9  
 Poor (≥7.5%) 144 23.1 93 18.0 0.10
Mean HbA 1c (SD) in % 6.9 (1.1) 6.8 (1.0) 0.14
Mean HDL (SD) in mg/dl 47.7 (14.3) 57.3 (17.2) <0.0001
Mean systolic BP (SD) in mmHg 137.8 (18.1) 136.8 (19.0) 0.41
Mean diastolic BP (SD) in mmHg 79.4 (10.2) 79.6 (10.5) 0.68
Physician reported time since diabetes diagnosis
 ≤5 years 241 38.6 213 40.8  
 6 – 10 years 185 29.7 146 28.0  
 11 – 15 years 104 16.7 81 15.5  
 ≥16 years 94 15.1 82 15.7 0.82
Appointments with GPs (last 3 months)      
 ≤1 260 41.7 197 37.9  
 2 – 3 245 39.3 216 41.5  
 ≥4 119 19.1 107 20.6 0.43
Participation in a DMP-DM 471 79.4 398 81.7 0.34
Medication adherence      
 Good 455 75.6 385 77.0  
 Moderate 132 21.9 102 20.4  
 Poor 15 2.5 13 2.6 0.83
General health status (self-rated)      
 Excellent or very good 62 10.0 40 7.7  
 Good 366 58.7 291 55.8  
 Fair 174 27.9 172 32.9  
 Poor 21 3.4 19 3.6 0.21
Physician diagnosed comorbidities      
 Hypertension 488 78.3 407 78.1 0.93
 Hypercholesterolemia 350 56.2 300 57.8 0.58
 Coronary heart disease 147 23.6 67 12.8 <0.0001
 Heart failure 75 12.0 64 12.3 0.89
 Intermittent claudication 96 15.4 36 6.9 <0.0001
 Stroke 47 7.5 22 4.2 0.02
 Nephropathy 76 12.2 45 8.6 0.05
 Retinopathy 51 8.2 35 6.7 0.35
 Neuropathy 144 23.1 104 20.0 0.20
 Depression 67 10.7 97 18.6 0.0002
 Cancer 63 10.1 49 9.4 0.70
  1. *SD = standard deviation; HbA1c = glycated haemoglobin A1c; GP = general practitioner;
  2. DMP-DM = disease management program for treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes.
  3. Missing values: education: 21, marital status: 6, occupational status: 51, smoking: 4, BMI: 1, HbA1c: 4, HDL: 270, systolic and diastolic BP: 70, appointments with GPs: 2, DMP-DM: 66, adherence: 44, health status: 1, hypertension: 2, hypercholesterolemia: 4, CHD: 2, heart failure: 1, intermittent claudication: 1, stroke: 2, nephropathy: 1, retinopathy: 1, depression: 1, cancer: 1
  4. Significant results (p < 0.05) by χ² test are printed bold.