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Table 1 Patient characteristics, clinical measures and association with HbA1c

From: Characteristics of poorly controlled Type 2 diabetes patients in Swiss primary care

  Mean ± SD or n (%) Association with HbA1c1)
Coefficient P-value
Anthropometrics and sociodemographics
Age (years) 67.1 ± 10.6 -0.167 0.003 a)
Male gender (n, %) 187 (57.4)   0.675 b)
Nationality Swiss (n, %) 291 (91.8)   0.228 b)
Living together with partner/family (n, %) 246 (78.3)   0.392 b)
Still working (n, %) 100 (32.2)   0.249 b)
Education (years) 11.6 ± 3.2 -0.027 0.632 a)
Smoking status    0.780 c)
Current smoker (n, %) 36 (11.5)   
Former smoker (n, %) 129 (41.1)   
Never smoker (n, %) 149 (47.4)   
Diabetes variables
Duration of diabetes (years) 9.9 ± 7.6 0.019 0.740 a)
Family history of Type 2 diabetes (n, %) 186 (57.6)   0.987 b)
Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c, %) 7.7 ± 1.3   
Fasting serum glucose (mmol/l) 8.0 ± 2.4 0.472 0.000 a)
Severe hypoglycaemia (≥1, %) 2) 32 (9.8)   0.937 b)
Hyperglycaemic episodes (≥1, %) 2) 19 (5.8)   0.091 b), 4d)
Self monitoring of blood glucose
none (n, %) 65 (19.9)   0.352 b)
daily (≥1) (n, %) 133 (40.8)   0.122 b)
weekly (≥1) (n, %) 101 (31.0)   0.205 b)
monthly (≥1) (n, %) 27 (8.3)   0.707 b)
Foot status (pathological; n, %) 52 (16)   0.105 b)
Peripheral pulse status (pathological; n, %) 97 (29.8)   0.387 b)
Monofilament test (pathological; n, %) 42 (13.5)   0.091 b), 4e)
Vibratory sensation (pathological; n, %) 81 (24.9)   0.735 b)
Annual dilated eye exam
pathological (n, %) 28 (8.7)   0.898 b)
non-pathological (n, %) 194 (60.1)   0.376 b)
not conducted (n, %) 101 (31.2)   0.372 b)
Clinical and laboratory measures
Number of consultations last year 8.07 ± 6.0 -0.051 0.355 a)
Compliance (1 = very good, 4 = very bad) 1.87 ± 0.7 0.161 0.004 a)
    0.027 c),3),4f)
very good 109 (33.6)   
rather good 149 (46)   
rather bad 64 (19.8)   
very bad 2 (0.6)   
Blood pressure systolic (mmHg) 139.1 ± 17.6 -0.004 0.941 a)
Blood pressure diastolic (mmHg) 80.9 ± 10.5 0.101 0.070 a)
Pulse 73.7 ± 11.9 0.024 0.671 a)
Body-mass index (BMI; kg/m2) 30.6 ± 5.6 0.137 0.013 a)
Waist circumference (cm) 108.3 ± 12.4 0.105 0.059 a)
Waist-hip ratio (cm/cm) 1.0 ± 0.1 0.006 0.910 a)
Cholesterol (mmol/l)    
Total 4.8 ± 1.1 0.069 0.214 a)
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) 2.7 ± 1.1 0.072 0.196 a)
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) 1.2 ± 0.4 -0.088 0.113 a)
Creatinine (μmol/l) 82.1 ± 26.8 -0.009 0.866 a)
Creatinine-Clearance according to Cockcroft 96.3 ± 47.6 0.108 0.052 a)
  1. 1) a) Associations HbA1c with continuous variables by Pearson correlations (coefficient), between HbA1c and categorical variables by b) t-tests and c) ANOVA.
  2. 2) In the last 12 months.
  3. 3) Compliance categories “rather bad & very bad” categorised because of “very bad” n = 2.
  4. 4) HbA1c (%) mean per category of significant t-test and ANOVA results (p < 0.010): d) Hyperglycaemic episodes: yes = 8.5, no = 7.6; e) Monofilament test: pathological = 7.5, non-pathological = 7.8; f) Compliance: very good = 7.5, rather good = 7.7, rather bad & very bad = 8.0.