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Table 1 The baseline characteristics of study subjects categorized by number of positive components in metabolic syndrome

From: Central obesity is important but not essential component of the metabolic syndrome for predicting diabetes mellitus in a hypertensive family-based cohort. Results from the Stanford Asia-pacific program for hypertension and insulin resistance (SAPPHIRe) Taiwan follow-up study

  0 1 2 3 4/5 P#
No. of patients 77 158 155 133 72  
Male gender, n (%) 28 (36.4%) 64 (40.5%) 69 (44.5%) 68 (51.1%)* 45 (62.5%)*** <0.001
Age (years) 45.6±7.5 47.2±8.4 47.8±8.8 49.9±9.1** 50.3±8.8** <0.001
Smoking (packs/day*year) 2.8±6.42 3.1±8.1 4.7±10.7 5.3±10.1* 9.4±13.5*** <0.001
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 21.9±1.9 23.7±2.4*** 25.2±2.9*** 26.6±2.9*** 27.7±2.4*** <0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 74.7±6.1 78.5±7.8*** 83.1±9.7*** 88.6±9.2*** 92.0±6.8*** <0.001
Systolic BP (mmHg) 103±10 121±26*** 132±24*** 137±23*** 144±23*** <0.001
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 64±7 74±14*** 78±14*** 81±13*** 84±12*** <0.001
Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 4.7±0.4 4.8±0.4 4.9±0.4* 5.0±0.6*** 5.4±0.6*** <0.001
2hr pc glucose (mmol/L) 6.5±1.8 6.9±1.5 7.0±1.9* 7.5±1.7*** 8.4±1.8*** <0.001
Insulin (μU/mL) 4.2±1.9 5.7±3.1*** 7.3±4.6*** 8.5±4.6*** 11.5±5.7*** <0.001
HOMA-IR 0.9±0.4 1.3±0.7*** 1.6±1.1*** 1.9±1.1*** 2.8±1.5*** <0.001
Triglyceride (mmol/L) 0.8±0.3 1.0±0.4*** 1.3±0.6*** 1.6±0.9*** 2.4±1.1*** <0.001
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.5±0.3 1.2±0.3*** 1.1±0.3*** 1.0±0.2*** 0.9±0.2*** <0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.6±0.9 4.8±1.1 4.8±0.9 4.8±1.1 4.9±0.9 0.177
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.7±0.8 3.1±1.1 3.1±0.9 3.1±1.0 3.0±0.9 0.393
  1. #: P value among the five group.
  2. *: P<0.05, **: P<0.01 and ***: P<0.001 in comparison with the 0 group.
  3. Abbreviations: 2hr pc glucose= postchallenge plasma glucose level at 120 min, BP= blood pressure, HDL= high-density lipoprotein, HOMA-IR= homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance and LDL= low-density lipoprotein.