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Table 2 Baseline characteristics according to quartiles of FEV 1 (% predicted) and FVC (% predicted)

From: Reduced lung function is independently associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes in Korean men

  FEV1 (%)   FVC (%)  
  Quartile 1 (≤94.6) Quartile 4 (>119.9) P value Quartile1 (≤89.4) Quartile 4 (>109.1) P value
n 2305 2305   2305 2305  
Age (years) 40.8 ± 5.7 41.9 ± 6.1 <0.0001 42.2 ± 6.5 40.9 ± 5.4 <0.0001
Systolic BP (mmHg) 117.5 ± 12.8 117.5 ± 12.6 0.989 118.0 ± 13.1 117.0 ± 12.2 0.008
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 77.2 ± 9.7 76.6 ± 9.3 0.039 77.5 ± 9.7 76.4 ± 9.1 <0.0001
HR (n/min) 65.1 ± 8.8 66.7 ± 9.2 <0.0001 65.5 ± 8.8 66.3 ± 9.2 0.002
BMI (kg/m2) 24.5 ± 2.8 24.7 ± 2.5 0.011 24.8 ± 2.8 24.3 ± 2.4 <0.0001
TC (mmol/L) 5.43 ± 0.93 5.48 ± 0.91 0.073 5.46 ± 0.92 5.44 ± 0.92 0.415
TG (mmol/L) 1.84 ± 1.14 1.72 ± 0.95 <0.0001 1.84 ± 1.14 1.68 ± 0.97 <0.0001
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.32 ± 0.25 1.38 ± 0.26 <0.0001 1.33 ± 0.25 1.38 ± 0.26 <0.0001
LDL-C (mmol/L) 3.17 ± 0.76 3.19 ± 0.76 0.356 3.18 ± 0.74 3.17 ± 0.76 0.613
Glucose (mmol/L) 5.30 ± 0.46 5.13 ± 0.47 <0.0001 5.30 ± 0.47 5.12 ± 0.47 <0.0001
Insulin (pmol/L) 51.08 ± 20.63 52.40 ± 19.61 0.026 52.65 ± 21.16 50.94 ± 19.43 0.004
HOMA-IR 1.74 ± 0.77 1.73 ± 0.70 0.437 1.80 ± 0.79 1.68 ± 0.69 <0.0001
FEV1 (L) 3.46 ± 0.39 5.33 ± 0.59 <0.0001 3.57 ± 0.46 5.25 ± 0.67 <0.0001
FVC (L) 4.20 ± 0.96 5.77 ± 0.68 <0.0001 4.02 ± 0.41 5.88 ± 0.97 <0.0001
Alcohol (g/day) 13.4 ± 16.0 15.5 ± 16.6 <0.0001 14.3 ± 16.4 15.0 ± 16.6 0.166
Current smoker, n (%) 1053 (45.7) 906 (39.3) <0.0001 972 (42.2) 935 (40.6) 0.393
  1. Values are mean ± SD for continuous variables. P values for continuous variables were obtained from the Student’s t test. TG was expressed as raw data but was applied for statistical analysis after natural logarithmic transformation.
  2. FEV1, forced expiratory volume in one second; FVC, forced vital capacity; BP, blood pressure; HR, heart rate; BMI, body mass index; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglyceride; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment – insulin resistance.