Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the non-diabetic and diabetic groups at follow-up

From: Reduced lung function is independently associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes in Korean men

  Non-diabetic group (n = 9,013) Diabetic group (n = 207) P value
Age (years) 41.3 ± 5.8 42.6 ± 5.6 0.002
Systolic BP (mmHg) 117.0 ± 12.4 122.6 ± 14.7 <0.0001
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 76.6 ± 9.3 80.3 ± 10.6 <0.0001
HR (n/min) 65.6 ± 8.8 68.5 ± 10.2 <0.0001
BMI (kg/m2) 24.4 ± 2.6 26.7 ± 3.3 <0.0001
TC (mmol/L) 5.42 ± 0.90 5.59 ± 0.94 0.007
TG (mmol/L) 1.73 ± 0.98 2.36 ± 1.64 <0.0001
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.35 ± 0.26 1.28 ± 0.23 <0.0001
LDL-C (mmol/L) 3.16 ± 0.75 3.25 ± 0.73 0.072
Glucose (mmol/L) 5.20 ± 0.45 6.00 ± 0.50 <0.0001
Insulin (pmol/L) 50.58 ± 19.36 67.86 ± 31.88 <0.0001
HOMA-IR 1.69 ± 0.69 2.61 ± 1.24 <0.0001
FEV1 (L) 4.32 ± 0.81 4.13 ± 0.84 0.001
FVC (L) 4.88 ± 0.90 4.71 ± 0.86 0.010
FEV1 (%) 108.0 ± 18.7 103.5 ± 19.1 0.001
FVC (%) 100.2 ± 17.1 95.2 ± 15.3 <0.0001
Alcohol (g/day) 14.3 ± 16.1 16.6 ± 19.6 0.097
Weight class, n (%)    
BMI <25 5,353 (59.4) 64 (30.9) <0.0001
BMI ≥25 3,659 (40.6) 143 (69.1)  
Smoking status, n (%)    
Non-smoker 2,858 (31.7) 50 (24.2) 0.029
Ex-smoker 2,418 (26.8) 54 (26.1)  
Current-smoker 3,736 (41.5) 103 (49.8)  
Education status, n (%)    
≤12 years 1,689 (18.7) 49 (23.7) 0.004
≤14 years 706 (7.8) 26 (12.6)  
≥16 years 6,618 (73.4) 132 (63.8)  
Regular exercise, n (%)    
None 2,221 (24.6) 47 (22.7) 0.44
<1 time/week 3,523 (39.1) 90 (43.5)  
≥1 time/week 3,269 (36.2) 70 (33.8)  
FVC (%) quartiles, n (%)    
Q 1 (≤89.4) 2,221 (24.6) 84 (40.6) <0.0001
Q 2 (89.4-98.6) 2,265 (25.1) 40 (19.3)  
Q 3 (98.6-109.1) 2,253 (25.0) 52 (25.1)  
Q 4 (>109.1) 2,274 (25.2) 31 (15.0)  
FEV1 (%) quartiles, n (%)    
Q 1 (≤94.6) 2,233 (24.8) 72 (34.8) 0.005
Q 2 (94.6-105.5) 2,252 (25.0) 53 (25.6)  
Q 3 (105.5-119.9) 2,262 (25.1) 43 (20.8)  
Q 4 (>119.9) 2,266 (25.1) 39 (18.8)  
  1. Values are mean ± SD for continuous variables and number (percentages) for categorical variables. P values for continuous variables were obtained from the Student’s t test. P values for categorical variables were obtained from Chi-square tests. TG was expressed as raw data but was applied for statistical analysis after natural logarithmic transformation.
  2. BP, blood pressure; HR, heart rate; BMI, body mass index; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglyceride; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment – insulin resistance; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in one second; FVC, forced vital capacity; Q, quartile.