Insulin, BLX-1002, metformin and rosuvastatin stimulate HCAEC proliferation at normal glucose concentration. In order to study the effects of agents on proliferation of HCAECs, cells were incubated at 5 mM of glucose in medium supplemented with 0.5% FBS for 24 h in the presence or absence of insulin lispro (100 pM), metformin (500 μM), BLX-1002 (1 μM), rosuvastatin (10 nM). Eight hours prior to the end of the incubation, cells were pulsed with [3H]thymidine. Cells were then harvested and [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA was measured using a microplate scintillation & luminescence counter, and the protein concentration of the samples was measured using DC™ Protein Assay. * denotes P < 0.05, ** denotes P < 0.01, *** denotes P < 0.001 for chance differences vs. controls by Student's t-test.