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Table 1 Demographic, clinical, lifestyle and genetic characteristics of the study participants at baseline

From: Associations of the FTO rs9939609 and the MC4R rs17782313 polymorphisms with type 2 diabetes are modulated by diet, being higher when adherence to the Mediterranean diet pattern is low

  Total No type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes  
  (n=7,052) (n=3,622) (n=3,430)
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) P
Men/women, n 3008/4044 1382/2240 1626/1804 <0.001
Age (years) 66.9 (6.2) 66.6 (6.1) 67.3 (6.2) <0.001
Weight (kg) 76.8 (11.9) 76.6 (11.7) 76.9 (12.2) 0.378
BMI (kg/m2) 29.9 (3.8) 30.0 (3.7) 29.9 (4.0) 0.066
Waist circumference (cm) 100.4 (10.6) 99.7 (10.6) 101.2 (10.5) <0.001
Adherence to the Mediterranean diet 8.7 (1.9) 8.7 (2.1) 8.5 (1.9) 0.003
Energy intake (kcal/d) 2276 (607) 2322 (604) 2228 (607) <0.001
Total fat (g/d) 98.7 (30.4) 99.1 (29.6) 98.6 (31.3) 0.534
Saturated fat (g/d) 25.4 (9.2) 25.2 (9.0) 25.5 (9.4) 0.155
MUFA (g/d) 48.8 (16.1) 49.2 (15.5) 48.6 (16.6) 0.680
PUFA (g/d) 15.9 (7.0) 15.8 (7.2) 15.9 (7.2) 0.816
Carbohydrates (g/d) 239 (81) 250 (82) 229 (78) <0.001
Fiber (g/d) 25.7 (9.2) 25.9 (9.3) 25.4 (9.1) 0.063
Alcohol consumption (g/d) 8.4 (14.1) 9.1 (14.7) 7.6 (13.4) <0.001
Folic acid (microg/d) 406 (127) 407 (125) 406 (129) 0.777
Physical activity* (kcal/d) 230 (239) 225 (226) 237 (253) 0.028
Fasting glucose (mg/dL)** 122.2 (41.0) 98.2 (16.4) 147.3 (45.0) <0.001
Current smokers (%) 14.1 16.0 12.1   0.001
Obesity (%) 46.7 47.0 46.4   0.595
Genotypes (%)
FTO rs9939609
TT 33.0 33.9 32.1   0.227
TA 48.7 48.3 49.1   
AA 18.3 17.8 18.8   
MC4R rs17782313***
TT 61.8 61.9 61.9   0.965
TC 33.5 33.4 33.4   
CC 4.7 4.7 4.7   
  1. P: P-value for the comparison between subjects with type 2 diabetes and non-diabetes.
  2. *Leisure time physical activity; **: Fasting glucose data were available for 6232 participants.
  3. ***Genotype data for the MC4R were obtained for 7019 subjects.
  4. BMI: Body mass index; MUFA: Monounsaturated fatty acids; PUFA: polyunsaturated fatty acids.