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Table 3 Key studies on pulmonary volumes and the risk of new onset type 2 DM

From: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and glucose metabolism: a bitter sweet symphony

First author and year Country Study design Population studied Findings
Lazarus et al.[119]; 1998 USA Prospective cohort study with a mean follow up of 20.9 years n:1,050 men (with no self-reported DM) included in the final analysis mean age: 41.4 years mean BMI: 25.6 kg/m² Reduced FVC, FEV1 and MMEF were associated with greater fasting insulin and fasting insulin resistance after logistic regression analysis.
Engström et al.[124]; 2002 Sweden Prospective cohort study with a mean follow up of 13 years n: 382 non-diabetic men age at the beginning of the study:55 years mean BMI: 24.4-24.7 years (depends on the pulmonary VC subgroup) 15 new cases of type 2 DM were diagnosed during the follow up. DM and log glucose were inversely associated with baseline VC.
Engström et al.[125]; 2003 Sweden Population based cohort study with a mean follow up of 13.9 years for men and 9.4 years for women n: 2,332 non-diabetic subjects (men-1,436, 61.57%) mean age for men: 44.0-44.9 years (depends on the pulmonary FVC subgroup) mean age for women: 49.4-50.4 years (depends on the pulmonary FVC subgroup) mean BMI for men: 24.2-24.9 kg/m²(depends on the pulmonary FVC subgroup) mean BMI for women: 23.2-23.9 kg/m²(depends on the pulmonary FVC subgroup) The association between baseline FVC and IR at follow up remained statistically significant after adjustment for gender, age at screening, follow up time, smoking/tobacco consumption, BMI and waist to hip ratio, physical activity and baseline log glucose
Kwon et al.[126]; 2012 Korea Prospective cohort study with a follow up of 5 years n: 9,220 men non-diabetic at baseline mean age: 41.4 years mean baseline BMI: 24.4 kg/m² for patients without type 2 DM at follow up and 26.7 kg/m² for patients with type 2 DM at follow up 207 patients developed type 2 DM with the incidence of 2.2%.
FEV1 and FVC were negatively associated with type 2 DM.
In patients with BMI<25 kg/m2 the lowest quartile of FVC and FEV1 had OR of 2.15 (95% CI 1.02-4.57) and 2.19 (95% CI 1.09-4.42) for incident type 2 DM.
Heianza et al.[132]; 2012 Japan Observational study with a 4 year follow up n: 5,346 (100% men) mean age: 48.6 years mean BMI: 23.3 kg/m² Compared with the highest FEV1 quartile, lower quartiles were associated with 1.79-1.86 greater risk for the new onset type 2 DM (95% CI, 1.10-2.91).
  1. Abbreviations: BMI : Body Mass Index; CI : Confidence Interval; FEV 1 : Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second; FVC : Forced Vital Capacity; HR : Hazard Ratio; MMEF : Maximal Mid-Expiratory Flow; OR : Odds Ratio; VC : Vital Capacity.