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Table 2 Key proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines and their potential role in COPD and DM (Adapted from references #) [[3877]]

From: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and glucose metabolism: a bitter sweet symphony

Name Major origin Physiological function Data on COPD Data on DM
CRP Liver/Hepatocyte Proinflammatory. COPD is independently associated with increased levels of CRP. Moreover, CRP may predict the future onset of COPD. Elevated CRP levels may predict the development of onset of type 2 DM.
TNF-α Macrophages, other leukocytes and adipocytes Proinflammatory and proapoptotic. Possible insulin antagonism. COPD is independently associated with increased levels of TNF-α May be a risk factor for the development of new onset type 2 DM.
IL-1 Macrophages, other leukocytes, dendritic cells etc. Proinflammatory. Lymphocyte activation IL-1 is implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD related inflammation. An increase in IL-1β may predict the development of new onset type 2 DM.
IL-6 Lvier/Hepatocyte, macrophages, other leukocytes, adipocytes etc. Proinflammatory. Upregulation of the synthesis of CRP and other proinflammatory cytokines in the liver. COPD is independently associated with increased levels of IL-6. IL-6 was shown to increase the risk for the new onset type 2 DM.
Fibrinogen Liver/Hepatocyte Proinflammatory. Active participation in coagulation. COPD is independently associated with increased fibrinogen levels. No data on fibrinogen and the risk of new onset type 2 DM.
Leptin Adipocyte Appetite regulation. Possible proinflammatory actions. Leptin levels are increased in patients with COPD. May contribute to COPD related weight loss and pulmonary function decline. Leptin may increase the risk of type 2 DM. Leptin may participate in the development of DM related complications via its proinflammatory actions.
Adiponectin Adipocyte Antiinflammatory. Increase in insulin synthesis and increase in insulin sensitivity. Adiponectin levels are increased in patients with COPD and low BMI, which may explain decreased mortality from cardiovascular causes in advanced COPD. Adiponectin may prevent the development of type 2 DM via its anti-inflammatory and proinsulin actions.
Resistin Leukocytes Proinflammatory and insulin antagonizing actions. Resistin levels may be increased in COPD and mediate IR. Resistin may directly participate in the development of IR.
  1. Abbreviations: CRP: C-Reactive Protein; DM: Diabetes Mellitus; IL: Interleukin; TNF-α: Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha.