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Table 1 Comparisons of baseline sociodemographic factors, lifestyle behaviors, diabetes-related variables, drug-related variables, diabetes-related diseases, and blood biochemical indices among patients with different clinical stages of baseline renal function, as determined by mean eGFR

From: Joint relationship between renal function and proteinuria on mortality of patients with type 2 diabetes: The Taichung Diabetes Study

Variables Baseline mean eGFR N (%) P value
  ≥90 (N=3686) 60~89 (N=1981) 15~59 (N=856)  
Sociodemographic factors
Gender     0.01
 Female 1800 (48.83) 898 (45.33) 432 (50.47)  
 Male 1886 (51.17) 1083 (54.67) 424 (49.53)  
Age (yrs)† 54.16±10.96 64.19±10.18 67.22±10.09 <0.001
Lifestyle behaviors
Smoking     <0.001
 No 2863 (77.67) 1665 (84.05) 724 (84.58)  
 Yes 823 (22.33) 316 (15.95) 132 (15.42)  
Alcohol drinking     <0.001
 No 3200 (86.81) 1784 (90.06) 810 (94.63)  
 Yes 486 (13.19) 197 (9.94) 46 (5.37)  
Exercising     <0.001
 No 1650 (44.76) 702 (35.44) 304 (35.51)  
 Yes 2036 (55.24) 1279 (64.56) 552 (64.49)  
Diabetes-related variables
Diabetes medical history(yrs)† 5.22±6.06 7.26±7.11 11.23±8.57 <0.001
Type of DM treatment     <0.001
 Oral hypoglycemic drug 3045 (82.61) 1706 (86.12) 659 (76.99)  
 Inject insulin 69 (1.87) 15 (0.76) 10 (1.17)  
 Both 261 (7.08) 159 (8.03) 167 (19.51)  
 Both not 311 (8.44) 101 (5.10) 20 (2.34)  
Drug-related variables
Hypertension drug treatment     <0.001
 No 2543 (68.99) 953 (48.11) 295 (34.46)  
 Yes 1143 (31.01) 1028 (51.89) 561 (65.54)  
Diabetes-related diseases
Obesity     0.18
 No 2581 (70.02) 1346 (67.95) 580 (67.76)  
 Yes 1105 (29.98) 635 (32.05) 276 (32.24)  
Hypertension     <0.001
 No 2517 (68.29) 967 (48.81) 305 (35.63)  
 Yes 1169 (31.71) 1014 (51.19) 551 (64.37)  
Hyperlipidemia     <0.001
 No 2637 (71.54) 1317 (66.48) 549 (64.14)  
 Yes 1049 (28.46) 664 (33.52) 307 (35.86)  
DKA     0.72
 No 3644 (98.86) 1963 (99.09) 847 (98.95)  
 Yes 42 (1.14) 18 (0.91) 9 (1.05)  
HHNK     <0.001
 No 3642 (98.81) 1926 (97.22) 813 (94.98)  
 Yes 44 (1.19) 55 (2.78) 43 (5.02)  
Severe Hypoglycemia     <0.001
 No 3624 (98.32) 1942 (98.03) 810 (94.63)  
 Yes 62 (1.68) 39 (1.97) 46 (5.37)  
Stroke     <0.001
 No 3522 (95.55) 1799 (89.80) 722 (84.35)  
 Yes 164 (4.45) 202 (10.20) 134 (15.65)  
Coronary artery disease     <0.001
 No 3546 (96.20) 1799 (90.81) 726 (84.81)  
 Yes 140 (3.80) 182 (9.19) 130 (15.19)  
Myocardial infarction     <0.001
 No 3414 (92.62) 1805 (91.12) 748 (87.38)  
 Yes 272 (7.38) 176 (8.88) 108 (12.62)  
Peripheral neuropathy     <0.001
 No 3201 (86.84) 1660 (83.80) 600 (70.09)  
 Yes 485 (13.16) 321 (16.20) 256 (29.91)  
Intermittent claudication     <0.001
 No 3641 (98.78) 1946 (98.23) 829 (96.85)  
 Yes 45 (1.22) 35 (1.77) 27 (3.15)  
Neuropathy     <0.001
 No 3461 (93.90) 1823 (92.02) 696 (81.31)  
 Yes 225 (6.10) 158 (7.98) 160 (18.69)  
Blood biochemical indexes
Triglyceride (mg/dl) † 159.98±205.49 166.44±191.09 190.26±216.96 <0.001
High-density lipoprotein (mg/dl) † 41.76±11.31 40.15±10.91 39.30±11.68 <0.001
HbA1c (%)† 8.59±2.01 8.11±1.89 8.26±1.92 <0.001
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl) † 169.61±58.40 161.14±59.83 162.37±69.18 <0.001
  1. †:mean±SD; DDK: Diabetic ketoacidosis; HHNK: Hyperglycemia hyperosmolar non-ketoacidosis.
  2. Differences in continuous variables were tested by the student’s t-test.
  3. Differences in categorical variables were tested by the Chi-square test.