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Table 1 Baseline characteristics between participants with cases of type 2 diabetes and control participants

From: Associations of sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone with diabetes among men and women (the Saku Diabetes study): a case control study

Characteristics Cases Controls P-values *
Men
No. 215 215  
Age (yr) 64.5 ± 6.6 64.5 ± 6.6  
BMI (kg/m2) 24.1 ± 2.9 23.4 ± 2.7 0.01
Waist (cm) 87.0 ± 8.2 84.9 ± 7.7 0.006
Alcohol (% ≥ once/wk) 74.0 80.5 0.09
Smoking (% current) 19.5 15.3 0.25
Physical activity (% ≥ once/wk) 74.0 72.1 0.68
History of hypertension (%) 48.4 25.1 <0.001
History of dyslipidemia (%) 24.2 10.7 <0.001
Family history of diabetes (%) 29.8 13.0 <0.001
HbA1c (%) 6.6 ± 0.9 5.6 ± 0.3 <0.001
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 128.5 ± 30.9 97.4 ± 6.2 <0.001
Fasting insulin (μIU/mL) 6.3 ± 5.4 4.5 ± 3.7 <0.001
Fatty liver index 38.1 ± 24.0 28.3 ± 19.6 <0.001
C-reactive protein (mg/dL) 0.23 ± 1.04 0.10 ± 0.17 0.07
Sex hormones    
  SHBG (nmol/L) 72.6 ± 28.3 76.7 ± 28.9 0.12
  Total testosterone (ng/mL) 4.7 ± 1.7 5.4 ± 1.7 <0.001
  Free testosterone (ng/mL) 4.1 ± 1.6 4.5 ± 1.6 <0.002
Women
No. 85 85  
Age (yr) 63.2 ± 7.0 63.2 ± 7.0  
BMI (kg/m2) 24.0 ± 3.7 21.5 ± 2.6 <0.001
Waist (cm) 85.6 ± 8.9 77.8 ± 8.6 <0.001
Alcohol (% ≥ once/wk) 24.7 20.0 0.45
Smoking (% current) 7.1 3.5 0.32
Physical activity (% ≥ once/wk) 74.1 70.6 0.60
History of hypertension (%) 57.7 21.2 <0.001
History of dyslipidemia (%) 35.3 15.3 0.002
Menopause (%) 82.4 72.9 0.13
Family history of diabetes (%) 41.2 17.7 0.002
HbA1c (%) 6.7 ± 1.1 5.7 ± 0.3 <0.001
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 124.9 ± 31.5 96.0 ± 7.2 <0.001
Fasting insulin (μIU/mL) 6.8 ± 4.7 3.9 ± 2.0 <0.001
Fatty liver index 30.2 ± 23.3 13.6 ± 14.0 <0.001
C-reactive protein (mg/dL) 0.14 ± 0.22 0.06 ± 0.06 0.003
Sex hormones
  SHBG (nmol/L) 79.9 ± 35.9 102.7 ± 32.1 <0.001
  Total testosterone (ng/mL) 0.18 ± 0.10 0.15 ± 0.07 0.06
  Free testosterone (ng/mL) 0.13 ± 0.09 0.09 ± 0.05 <0.001
  1. Abbreviations: SHBG, sex hormone-binding globulin; FLI, fatty liver index.
  2. Data are means ± SD.
  3. * Baseline characteristics were compared between case patients and controls using the paired t-test for continuous variables and McNemar’s test for categorical variables.