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Table 4 Type of comorbidity and difference in health status domains compared to people with only diabetes

From: Both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular comorbidity are related to health status in well-controlled type 2 diabetes patients: a cross-sectional analysis

  Only diabetes n=1290 Diabetes with only cardiovascular disease n=413 Diabetes with only non-cardiovascular disease n=247 Diabetes with both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular diseases n=136
  Mean ± SD Beta (95% CI) Beta (95% CI) Beta (95% CI)
PF (Physical Functioning) 81.4 ± 20.3 −9.4 (−11.8 to −7.0)* −11.6 (−14.5 to −8.8)* −18.4 (−22.2 to −14.6)†
RP (Role limitations due to Physical problems) 82.1 ± 33.1 −7.9 (−11.9 to −3.9)* −11.6 (−16.6 to −6.6)* −19.8 (−26.2 to −13.4)‡
BP (Bodily Pain) 79.8 ± 22.0 −6.0 (−8.6 to −3.4)* −7.4 (−10.5 to −4.3)* −10.4 (−14.5 to −6.3)*
SF (Social Functioning) 87.2 ± 18.6 −6.0 (−8.3 to −3.8)* −5.1 (−7.8 to −2.4)* −10.0 (−13.6 to −6.4)*
MH (Mental Health) 80.7 ± 15.0 −4.4 (−6.1 to −2.6)* −3.1 (−5.2 to −1.1)* −4.0 (−6.8 to −1.2)*
RE (Role limitations due to Emotional problems) 90.1 ± 26.0 −7.4 (−10.8 to −4.0)* −4.0 (−8.1 to 0.1) −10.6 (−16.0 to −5.2)*
VT (Vitality) 69.3 ± 17.7 −6.5 (−8.5 to −4.5)* −6.2 (−8.6 to −3.8)* −9.6 (−12.8 to −6.4)*
GH (General Health) 66.3 ± 18.6 −6.8 (−9.0 to −4.7)* −8.3 (−10.9 to −5.7)* −11.7 (−15.0 to −8.3)*
PCS (Physical Component Score) 48.3 ± 9.4 −3.3 (−4.4 to −2.2)* −4.8 (−6.1 to −3.5)* −7.3 (−9.0 to −5.6)‡
MCS (Mental Component Score) 54.4 ± 8.2 −2.1 (−3.0 to −1.1)* −0.7 (−1.9 to 0.4) −1.7 (−3.2 to −0.1)*
EQ-5D (EuroQol 5 Dimensions) 0.88 ± 0.16 −0.06 (−0.08 to −0.04)* −0.07 (−0.10 to −0.05)* −0.10 (−0.13 to −0.07)*
EQ VAS (EuroQol Visual Analogue Scale) 78.7 ± 13.8 −5.4 (−7.0 to −3.7)* −5.9 (−8.0 to −3.9)* −7.8 (−10.4 to −5.3)*
  1. Linear regression analyses were adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, education, living alone, BMI and duration of diabetes.
  2. * significantly different from the group with only diabetes.
  3. † significantly different from the other three groups.
  4. ‡ significantly different from the groups with only diabetes and diabetes with only cardiovascular disease.
  5. SD, standard deviation; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.