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Table 3 Number of comorbidities and difference in health status domains compared to people with 0 comorbidities

From: Both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular comorbidity are related to health status in well-controlled type 2 diabetes patients: a cross-sectional analysis

  0 comorbidity n=1290 1 comorbidity n=517 2 comorbidities n=179 >2 comorbidities n=100
Mean ± SD Beta (95% CI) Beta (95% CI) Beta (95% CI)
PF (Physical Functioning) 81.4 ± 20.3 −8.8 (−10.9 to −6.7)* −14.3 (−17.6 to −11.0)† −22.3 (−26.6 to −18.0)‡
RP (Role limitations due to Physical problems) 82.1 ± 33.1 −8.2 (−11.8 to −4.5)* −11.5 (−17.1 to −5.9)* −26.3 (−33.6 to −19.0)‡
BP (Bodily Pain) 79.8 ± 22.0 −5.9 (−8.2 to −3.5)* −8.0 (−11.6 to −4.4)* −13.1 (−17.7 to −8.4)†
SF (Social Functioning) 87.2 ± 18.6 −5.0 (−7.1 to −3.0)* −7.5 (−10.6 to −4.3)* −12.0 (−16.1 to −7.9)†
MH (Mental Health) 80.7 ± 15.0 −3.6 (−5.2 to −2.0)* −4.5 (−6.9 to −2.1)* −4.6 (−7.8 to −1.5)*
RE (Role limitations due to Emotional problems) 90.1 ± 26.0 −6.0 (−9.1 to −2.9)* −7.3 (−12.0 to −2.5)* −10.6 (−16.7 to −4.4)*
VT (Vitality) 69.3 ± 17.7 −5.5 (−7.3 to −3.7)* −8.6 (−11.4 to −5.8)* −11.7 (−15.3 to −8.0)†
GH (General Health) 66.3 ± 18.6 −6.1 (−8.1 to −4.2)* −11.3 (−14.2 to −8.3)† −13.3 (−17.2 to −9.5)†
PCS (Physical Component Score) 48.3 ± 9.4 −3.3 (−4.3 to −2.3)* −5.4 (−6.9 to −3.9)* −9.2 (−11.2 to −7.3)‡
MCS (Mental Component Score) 54.4 ± 8.2 −1.5 (−2.4 to −0.6)* −1.8 (−3.1 to −0.4)* −1.6(−3.3 to 0.2)
EQ-5D (EuroQol 5 Dimensions) 0.88 ± 0.16 −0.06 (−0.08 to −0.05)* −0.07 (−0.10 to −0.05)* −0.11 (−0.15 to −0.08)*
EQ VAS (EuroQol Visual Analogue Scale) 78.7 ± 13.8 −4.8 (−6.3 to −3.4)* −7.8 (−10.0 to −5.5)* −8.9 (−11.8 to −6.0)*
  1. Linear regression analyses were adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, education, living alone, BMI and duration of diabetes.
  2. * significantly different from the group with 0 comorbidity.
  3. † significantly different from the group with 0 and the group with 1 comorbidity.
  4. ‡ significantly different from the groups with 0, 1 and 2 comorbidities.
  5. SD, standard deviation; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.