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Table 1 Characteristics of subjects categorized by body mass index

From: Alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase ratio is the best surrogate marker for insulin resistance in non-obese Japanese adults

Body mass index† characteristics Total Non-obese Overweight P-value*
  All N = 1,342 <25.0 kg/m2 N = 998 ≥25.0 kg/m2 N = 344  
Male sex,% 43.7 42.8 46.5 0.232
Age (years) 59 ± 13 60 ± 13 57 ± 12 0.012
Body mass index (kg/m2) 23.1 ± 3.1 21.7 ± 2.0 27.1 ± 2.2 <0.001
Smoking status {never/ex/light/heavy (%)} 71.2/9.6/9.1/10.1 72.6/8.3/8.9/10.1 66.9/13.4/9.6/10.2 0.043
Alcohol consumption {never/light/moderate/heavy (%)} 38.8/31.8/18.6/10.8 40.5/30.5/18.9/10.1 34.0/35.8/17.4/12.8 0.072
Cardiovascular disease,% 4.5 4.7 4.1 0.764
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 134 ± 21 132 ± 21 139 ± 19 <0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 80 ± 11 79 ± 11 84 ± 10 <0.001
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 201 ± 35 200 ± 34 205 ± 35 0.024
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 90 (67–126) 85 (64–117) 108 (81–152) <0.001
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 63 ± 15 65 ± 16 57 ± 13 <0.001
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 118 ± 32 116 ± 31 123 ± 32 <0.001
Uric acid (mg/dL) 5.0 ± 1.4 4.8 ± 1.4 5.5 ± 1.4 <0.001
High sensitivity CRP (mg/dL) 0.04 (0.02-0.09) 0.04 (0.02-0.07) 0.07 (0.04-0.15) <0.001
Serum HMW adiponectin (μg/mL) 4.89 (2.98-7.99) 5.37 (3.21-8.69) 3.95 (2.24-5.82) <0.001
GGT (IU/L) 25 (18–43) 22 [1737] 32 (21–63) <0.001
ALT (IU/L) 17 [1324] 16 [1221] 22 [1631] <0.001
AST (IU/L) 21 [1826] 21 [1826] 22 [1927] 0.013
ALT/AST ratio 0.79 (0.65-1.0) 0.74 (0.63-0.91) 0.96 (0.72-1.2) <0.001
  1. HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; CRP; C-reactive protein; HMW, high molecular weight; GGT, Gamma-glutamyl transferase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase. Data presented are mean ± standard deviation. Data for triglycerides, high sensitivity CRP, serum HMW adiponectin, GGT, ALT, AST, and ALT/AST ratio were skewed, and are presented as median (interquartile range), and were log-transformed for analysis. * Student’s t-test or χ2 test.