Cellular ultrastructure following HG treatment. Notes: TEM and SEM depicting the change in the cellular ultrastructure following high glucose (30 mmol/L) exposure. The normal HAECs present with few microfilaments and a rough endoplasmic reticulum (A, B). After exposure to HG, microfilamentation and a swollen rough endoplasmic reticulum appeared in the cytoplasm, and the cells became elongated and spindle-shaped (C, D). 1 bar = 4 μm.