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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population

From: Lipocalin-2, glucose metabolism and chronic low-grade systemic inflammation in Chinese people

Characteristics NGR (1) IGR     P value Homogeneity of groups
   Isolated IFG (2) Isolated IGT (3) IFG+IGT (4) Type 2 diabetes (5)   
n 1143 335 353 296 392 - -
Male, n (%) 502 (43.9) 121 (36.1) 164 (46.5) 116 (39.2) 173 (44.1) 0.55 -
Age (years) 57.3 ± 75.69 58.2 ± 7.0 60.8 ± 8.4 60.2 ± 8.5 60.9 ± 8.3 < 0.001 (1,2) (3,4) (3,5)
Current smoking, n (%) 211 (18.5) 92 (27.5) 79 (22.4) 58 (19.6) 117 (29.8) 0.25 -
Alcohol drinking, n (%) 135 (11.8) 41 (12.2) 46 (13.0) 29 (9.8) 57 (14.5) 0.89 -
BMI (kg/m2) 24.2 ± 3.3 24.7 ± 3.4 25.1 ± 3.2 25.4 ± 3.5 25.8 ± 3.5 < 0.001 (1) (2) (3,4) (4,5)
Waist circumference (cm) 81.3 ± 8.5 83.3 ± 9.7 85.1 ± 8.5 85.9 ± 9.9 87.3 ± 9.0 < 0.001 (1) (2,3,4) (4,5)
Waist/hip ratio 0.85 ± 0.06 0.87 ± 0.07 0.88 ± 0.07 0.89 ± 0.10 0.89 ± 0.06 < 0.001 (1) (2,3,4) (4,5)
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) 5.3 ± 0.5 6.2 ± 0.3 5.5 ± 0.4 6.0 ± 0.4 7.4 ± 2.4 < 0.001 (1) (2,4) (3) (5)
2 h OGTT plasma glucose (mmol/l) 5.9 ± 0.9 6.1 ± 0.9 9.1 ± 0.9 9.2 ± 1.0 14.6 ± 4.1 < 0.001 (1,2) (3,4) (5)
Fasting serum insulin (μU/ml) 6.86 (4.83-9.94) 6.58
(3.97-9.69)
6.65
(4.47-9.77)
6.54 (4.38-9.62) 7.68
(4.92-11.68)
< 0.001 (1) (2,3,4) (4,5)
HOMA-IR 1.56 (1.06-2.39) 1.41
(0.65-2.22)
1.54
(0.95-2.31)
1.39 (0.74-2.33) 1.93
(1.00-3.32)
< 0.001 (1) (2,3) (4,5)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 126 ± 17 130 ± 17 132 ± 17 135 ± 18 137 ± 18 < 0.001 (1) (2,3,4) (4,5)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 79 ± 9 81 ± 10 82 ± 11 83 ± 10 83 ± 10 < 0.001 (1) (2,3, 4,5)
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.26 (0.90-1.81) 1.40 (0.92-1.95) 1.45
(0.96-2.13)
1.35 (0.95-2.12) 1.57
(1.10-2.28)
< 0.001 (1) (2,3,4) (5)
Total cholerterol (mmol/l) 5.38 ± 1.04 5.32 ± 0.93 5.54 ± 1.07 5.34 ± 1.07 5.59 ± 1.06 0.03 (1,2,3, 4) (5)
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.13 ± 0.78 3.11 ± 0.69 3.22 ± 0.90 3.18 ± 0.91 3.29 ± 0.87 0.21 (1,2,3, 4) (5)
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.45 ± 0.51 1.41 ± 0.32 1.35 ± 0.33 1.28 ± 0.31 1.30 ± 0.62 < 0.001 (1,2) (3,4,5)
CRP (μg/ml) 2.41 (1.11-4.95) 2.35 (1.18-4.99) 3.58 (1.61-6.56) 2.73 (1.37-5.48) 3.53 (1.62-7.22) < 0.001 (1) (2) (3,4,5)
CXCL5 (pg/ml) 1.7 ± 1.3 1.8 ± 1.3 1.9 ± 1.4 1.8 ± 1.2 1.9 ± 1.9 0.03 (1) (2,3, 4,5)
Adiponectin (μg/ml) 10.42 (7.19-14.62) 9.93 (6.58-13.88) 9.47 (6.71-13.62) 10.11 (7.08-13.84) 9.04 (6.12-12.55) < 0.001 (1) (2,3, 4,5)
Lipocalin-2 (ng/ml) 69.2 ± 7.8 83.5 ± 8.9 92.4 ± 10.7 83.1 ± 8.6 89.2 ± 8.3 < 0.001 (1) (2,3, 4,5)
  1. Data are means ± SD, n (%), or median (interquartile range)