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Table 4 Echocardiography parameters in STZ-treated hyperglycemic, STZ-treated euglycemic, and vehicle treated control rats at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after STZ

From: Sympathetic nervous dysregulation in the absence of systolic left ventricular dysfunction in a rat model of insulin resistance with hyperglycemia

  Control STZ, Euglycemic STZ, Hyperglycemic
  2 Weeks 4 Weeks 6 Weeks 8 Weeks 2 Weeks 4 Weeks 6 Weeks 8 Weeks 2 Weeks 4 Weeks 6 Weeks 8 Weeks
EV (d) (μL) 477 ± 135 477 ± 65 431 ± 90 353 ± 43 570 ± 47 457 ± 100 400 ± 67 363 ± 35 435 ± 103 497 ± 117 483 ± 80 369 ± 111
EV (s) (μL) 199 ± 49 184 ± 72 137 ± 35 128 ± 19 192 ± 33 134 ± 39 160 ± 9 95 ± 23 189 ± 57 182 ± 42 162 ± 36 119 ± 37
SV (μL) 278 ± 122 293 ± 30 293 ± 58 225 ± 27 379 ± 81 323 ± 118 240 ± 76 268 ± 21 262 ± 57 314 ± 86 321 ± 52 250 ± 79
CO (mL/min) 105 ± 52 106 ± 15 112 ± 16 81 ± 11 138 ± 47 113 ± 37 93 ± 18 100 ± 13 82 ± 23 91 ± 18 94 ± 19 69 ± 22
IVCT (ms) 62 ± 5 79 ± 13 70 ± 6 64 ± 9 84 ± 5 74 ± 7 65 ± 7 73 ± 6 83 ± 14 81 ± 14 83 ± 15 78 ± 6
IVRT (ms) 22 ± 4 33 ± 5 25 ± 8 32 ± 7 23 ± 0 30 ± 5 31 ± 2 24 ± 6 27 ± 6 25 ± 4 34 ± 15 33 ± 5
A (cm/s) 62 ± 22 77 ± 13 85 ± 33 77 ± 25 59 ± 6 83 ± 22 65 ± 17 97 ± 23 50 ± 13 65 ± 21* 58 ± 39 69 ± 19*
E (cm/s) 98 ± 5 118 ± 23 92 ± 26 98 ± 19 105 ± 5 119 ± 22 92 ± 8 125 ± 42 92 ± 18 104 ± 24 98 ± 28 99 ± 21
E/A Ratio 1.7 ± 0.5 1.6 ± 0.3 1.2 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.3 1.8 ± 0.1 1.5 ± 0.2 1.4 ± 0.3 1.3 ± 0.2 1.9 ± 0.6 1.7 ± 0.3 2.0 ± 1.0 1.5 ± 0.3
  1. * p < 0.05 to controls, † p < 0.05 to euglycemic, one-way ANOVA, Bonferroni post hoc
  2. (EV = endocardial volume at diastole (d) or systole (s); SV = stroke volume; CO = cardiac output; IVCT = intraventricular contraction time; IVRT = isovolumic relaxation time; A = transmitral atrial (late) filling velocity; E = transmitral early filling velocity)
  3. Calculations:
  4. EV (d) = (4π/3) × (Endo Major (d)/2) × ((Endo Area (d))/π (Endo Major (d)/2))2
  5. EV (s) = (4π/3) × (Endo Major (s)/2) × ((Endo Area (s))/π (Endo Major (s)/2))2
  6. SV = EV(d) - EV (s)
  7. EF = SV/EV (d) × 100%
  8. FAC = (Endo Area (d) - Endo Area (s))/Endo Area (d) × 100%
  9. CO = SV × Heart Rate