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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants according to uric acid quartilesa

From: Serum uric acid level and its association with metabolic syndrome and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes

Characteristics Q1
(n = 256)
<230
Q2
(n = 257)
231-280
Q3
(n = 256)
281-330
Q4
(n = 257)
≥331
P value
MetS (%) 20.3 35.8 54.3 84.8 <0.001
Uric acid (μmol/L) 200 (190-220) 260 (250-270) 310 (300-320) 390 (350-430) <0.001
Age (yr)b 65.28 ± 11.27 66.57 ± 10.28 65.09 ± 12.35 67.52 ± 11.84 0.065
Maleb 73 (28.29) 91 (30.33) 92 (41.81) 139 (56.05) <0.001
Smoking (yes) 47 (18.22) 47 (15.67) 52 (23.64) 63 (25.40) 0.017
Alcohol (yes) 27 (10.47) 27 (9.00) 31 (15.50) 38 (15.32) 0.084
Duration of diabetes (yr) 9.72 ± 7.84 7.74 ± 7.04 7.24 ± 6.69 6.75 ± 6.56 <0.001
Self-reported CVDc 49 (18.99) 62 (20.67) 49 (22.27) 59 (23.79) 0.587
Family history of diabetesd 112 (43.41) 119 (39.67) 74 (33.64) 84 (33.87) 0.068
SBP (mmHg) 138.44 ± 20.68 139.92 ± 19.82 140.86 ± 22.00 142.31 ± 20.05 <0.001
DBP (mmHg) 80.71 ± 10.54 82.57 ± 10.92 82.14 ± 12.18 82.38 ± 10.69 0.207
BMI (kg/m2) 24.21 ± 3.39 24.91 ± 3.23 25.40 ± 3.47 25.97 ± 3.39 <0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 81.74 ± 9.68 83.62 ± 8.50 86.05 ± 9.32 87.67 ± 8.88 <0.001
Waist to hip ratio 0.86 ± 0.08 0.87 ± 0.06 0.88 ± 0.06 0.89 ± 0.06 0.176
Glucose (mmol/L) 9.25(7.20-12.30) 7.70(6.40-9.60) 7.80(6.60-9.70) 7.30(6.23-8.80) <0.001
Insulin (μU/mL)e 9.93 (5.85-15.06) 11.06 (6.93-17.26) 12.40 (7.93-18.24) 13.19 (8.80-20.13) 0.143
HOMA-IRe 3.91 (2.28-6.70) 3.98 (2.36-7.21) 4.40 (2.62-7.38)) 4.44 (2.63-6.55 0.028
CRP 1.92 (0.95-4.35) 1.98 (0.71-4.92) 2.33 (0.73-5.24) 3.59 (0.81-8.87) <0.001
IMT (mm) 0.82 ± 0.21 0.85 ± 0.22 0.86 ± 0.26 0.93 ± 0.29 0.016
HbA1C (%) 7.91 ± 1.94 7.10 ± 1.59 6.96 ± 1.42 6.93 ± 1.36 <0.001
Creatinine (μmol/L) 60.67 ± 13.14 65.22 ± 19.63 67.35 ± 15.50 81.09 ± 28.75 <0.001
eGFR (ml/min/1.732) 132.5 ± 25.5 125.2 ± 25.4 122.5 ± 26.7 108.3 ± 31.2 <0.001
ACR (mg/mmol) 2.45 (1.25-6.04) 2.80 (1.35-9.59) 3.02 (1.54-8.11) 3.52 (1.74-8.94) 0.022
Triglycerides (mmol/L)e 1.41 (0.97-1.91) 1.56 (1.09-2.23) 1.67 (1.17-2.41) 1.84 (1.28-2.64) <0.001
Total cholerterol (mmol/L) 5.32 ± 0.07 5.37 ± 0.07 5.44 ± 0.08 5.33 ± 0.07 0.623
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.99 ± 0.90 3.04 ± 0.84 3.11 ± 0.86 3.07 ± 0.85 0.189
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.47 ± 0.40 1.37 ± 0.36 1.26 ± 0.35 1.14 ± 0.29 <0.001
  1. SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure.; IMT, intima-media thickness
  2. aData are means SD, median (interquartile range), or number (percent); P value was calculated after adjustment for age, gender.
  3. bNot adjusted for itself.
  4. cSelf-reported CVD including stroke and coronary heart disease.
  5. dParents or siblings had a history of diabetes.
  6. eThese variables were log transformed before analysis.