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Table 2 Adjusted hazards ratio (HR) for all-cause and cardiovascular death at 7-year follow-up in heart failure patients with undiagnosed and clinical diabetes compared with those without diabetes

From: Seven-year mortality in heart failure patients with undiagnosed diabetes: an observational study

  All-cause death p value Cardio-vascular death p value
  No. of events (%) HR*(95% CI)   No. of events (%) HR*(95% CI)>  
No-diabetes (n = 188) 105 (55.9) 1 (reference)   56 (29.8) 1 (reference)  
Undiagnosed diabetes (n = 63) 45 (72.6) 1.69 (1.17-2.46) 0,006 36 (58.1) 2.45 (1.58-3.81) 0,001
Clinical diabetes (whole group) 112 (74.2) 1.48 (1.10-1.99) 0,009 84 (55.6) 2.01 (1.40-2.89) 0,006
Clinical diabetes (treatment)       
Diet alone (n = 43) 28 (63.6) 1.38 (0.9-2.13) 0,129 20 (45.5) 1.87 (1.09-3.18) 0,026
Oral drugs (n = 48) 34 (70.8) 1.33 (0.89-1.98) 0,221 22 (45.8) 1.49 (0.89-2.47) 0,096
Insulin (n = 58) 50 (84.7) 2.11 (1.48-3.00) 0,005 42 (71.2) 2.73 (1.76-4.24) < 0,001
  1. *Adjusted for age, sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, previous stroke, previous myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, hemoglobin and plasma creatinine concentrations.