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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients according to glycemic status at hospitalization

From: Seven-year mortality in heart failure patients with undiagnosed diabetes: an observational study

  No diabetes (n = 188) Undiagnosed diabetes (n = 63) Clinical diabetes (n = 149) p-value
Age (years) 71.1 (11.4) 72.7 (10.4) 71.4 (7.7) 0.568
Male (%) 100 (53) 30 (49) 73 (48) 0.627
Cardiovascular risk factors     
Smoking (%) 37 (19.8) 7 (11.3) 19 (12.6) 0.113
Hypertension (%) 129 (69) 44 (71) 126 (83.4) 0.007
Dyslipidemia (%) 40 (21.3) 17 (27) 56 (37.6) 0.002
Previous cardiovascular disease     
   MI (%) 39 (21) 18 (29) 51 (34) 0.024
   Stroke (%) 20 (11) 7 (11) 23 (15) 0.434
   Peripheral vascular disease (%) 16 (9) 4 (6) 31 (21) 0.001
HF ischemic etiology (%) 65 (35) 25 (40) 80 (54) 0.002
LVEF % (SD) 46 ± 18 47 ± 18 45 ± 18 0.771
Last-year HF Admission (%) 18 (9.6) 14 (22.6) 31 (20.7) 0.006
Biochemical parameters at admission     
   Fasting glucose mmol/L (SD) 5.5 ± 0.8 6.6 ± 1.5 7.8 ± 2.7 < 0.001
   Creatinine μmol/L (SD) 116.7 ± 73.4 120.2 ± 49.5 114 ± 55.7 0.817
   Haemoglobin g/L (SD) 0.131 ± 0.020 0.124 ± 0.023 0.125 ± 0.019 0.015
HF drug therapy at discharge     
   ACEI/ARA II (%) 122 (65.2) 39 (62.9) 97 (64.2) 0.943
   β-blockers (%) 52 (27.8) 13 (21) 56 (37.1) 0.041
   Diuretics (%) 163 (87.2) 52 (83.9) 126 (83.4) 0.597
   Spirinolactone (%) 55 (29.4) 23 (37.1) 47 (31.1) 0.527
  1. ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; ARA-II, angiotensin-2 receptor antagonists; HF, heart failure; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; MI, myocardial infarction.