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Table 3 Courtesy [8, 9] The manifold toxicities of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and T2DM

From: Intimal redox stress: Accelerated atherosclerosis in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Atheroscleropathy

  A-FLIGHT toxicities  
A Amylin (hyperamylinemia)/amyloid toxicity ROS
  Ang II (also induces PKC) ROS
  AGEs/AFEs (advanced glycosylation/fructosylation endproducts) ROS
  Antioxidant reserve compromised ROS
  Absence of antioxidant network ROS
  Ageing ROS
  Angiogenesis (induced redox stress) Arteriogenesis (impaired PAI-1) ROS
  Atherosclerosis – Atheroscleropathy. [ROS beget ROS] ROS
F Free fatty acid toxicity ROS
L Lipotoxicity ROS
I Insulin toxicity (hyperinsulinemia-hyperproinsulinemia) (endogenous) ROS
  Inflammation toxicity ROS
G Glucotoxicity (compounds peripheral insulin resistance) reductive stress Sorbitol / polyol pathway ROS plus
  Pseudohypoxia (NADH/NAD increased) PKC
H Hypertension toxicity ROS
  t homocysteine toxicity ROS
T Triglyceride toxicity ROS
  1. See reference [8, 9]