Differential impact of metabolic syndrome on subclinical atherosclerosis according to the presence of diabetes

  • Ki-Bum Won1,

    Affiliated with

    • Hyuk-Jae Chang2, 5Email author,

      Affiliated with

      • Hyeon-Chang Kim3,

        Affiliated with

        • Kyewon Jeon4,

          Affiliated with

          • Hancheol Lee2,

            Affiliated with

            • Sanghoon Shin2,

              Affiliated with

              • In-Jeong Cho2,

                Affiliated with

                • Sung-Ha Park2,

                  Affiliated with

                  • Sang-Hak Lee2 and

                    Affiliated with

                    • Yangsoo Jang2, 4

                      Affiliated with

                      Cardiovascular Diabetology201312:41

                      DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-12-41

                      Received: 5 January 2013

                      Accepted: 22 February 2013

                      Published: 4 March 2013

                      Abstract

                      Background

                      Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with increased risks of diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, data on the impact of MS and its individual components on subclinical atherosclerosis (SCA) according to diabetes status are scarce.

                      Methods

                      Surrogate markers of SCA, brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and carotid intima–medial thickness (IMT) and plaque were assessed in 2,560 subjects (60 ± 8 years, 33% men) who participated in baseline health examinations for a community-based cohort study.

                      Results

                      The participants included 2,149 non-diabetics (84%) and 411 diabetics (16%); 667 non-diabetics (31%) and 285 diabetics (69%) had MS, respectively. Diabetics had significantly higher baPWV and carotid IMT, and more plaques than non-diabetics (p < 0.001, respectively). Individuals with MS had significantly higher baPWV and carotid IMT than those without MS only among non-diabetics (p < 0.001, respectively). Among MS components, increased blood pressure was significantly associated with the exacerbation of all SCA markers in non-diabetics. The number of MS components was significantly correlated with both baPWV and carotid IMT in non-diabetics (baPWV: r = 0.302, p < 0.001; carotid IMT: r = 0.217, p < 0.001). Multiple regression showed both MS and diabetes were significantly associated with baPWV (p < 0.001, respectively), carotid IMT (MS: p < 0.001; diabetes: p = 0.005), and the presence of plaque (MS: p = 0.041; diabetes: p = 0.002).

                      Conclusions

                      MS has an incremental impact on SCA in conditions without diabetes. The identification of MS and its individual components is more important for the risk stratification of CVD in non-diabetic individuals.

                      Keywords

                      Metabolic syndrome Diabetes Atherosclerosis

                      Background

                      Metabolic syndrome (MS) represents a clustering of several cardiovascular (CV) risk factors including abdominal obesity, impaired glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, with insulin resistance as a major characteristic [1, 2]. It was recently estimated that MS is common, affecting 24% of adults in the US and 11–19% in Korea [3, 4]. MS is associated with the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke [5, 6].

                      MS has been promoted as a means of identifying the risk of diabetes development. A number of different definitions of MS include diabetes as part of the diagnostic criteria of MS. Recently, it has been strongly recommended that conditions with established diabetes or cardiovascular disease (CVD) should be excluded from the definition of MS, because MS is a pre-morbid condition rather than a clinical diagnosis [7]. However, there is a paucity of data supporting this recommendation, especially regarding atherosclerosis. In addition, the effects of MS and its individual components on subclinical atherosclerosis (SCA) according to diabetes status are unknown.

                      The intima–medial thickness (IMT) and plaque of the carotid artery can be measured noninvasively using high-resolution B-mode ultrasound. Brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) is used as a reproducible index of arterial elasticity and stiffness. Both increased baPWV and thickened IMT of the carotid artery are important surrogate markers of SCA that represent an increased risk of CV events [8, 9]. The present study investigated the effects of MS and its components on SCA according to diabetes status in a sample of 2,560 adults who participated in baseline health examinations for a community-based cohort study.

                      Methods

                      Subjects

                      This is a cross-sectional investigation analyzing baseline data collected for a prospective cohort study. We used the data of 2,560 subjects who participated in baseline health examinations for a community-based cohort study in the Seoul area between April 2010 and November 2012. Subjects with a clinical history of CVD, cerebrovascular disease, neurological abnormalities, cerebral hemorrhage, or malignancy were excluded. The study protocol was approved by the local ethics committee of our institution, and informed consent for the procedure was obtained from each individual.

                      Measurement of biochemical and clinical parameters

                      All blood samples were obtained after 8 hours of fasting and analyzed for glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured while subjects wore light clothing and no shoes. Waist circumference was measured at the midpoint between the lower border of the rib cage and iliac crest. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight (kg) ÷ height (m2). MS was defined as when 3 or more of the following were present: (a) abdominal obesity based on waist circumference ≥ 90 cm in males or ≥ 80 cm in females; (b) HDL cholesterol < 40 mg/dL in males or <50 mg/dL in females; (c) fasting triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL; (d) blood pressure ≥ 130 mmHg systolic or ≥ 85 mmHg diastolic, or on treatment; and (e) impaired fasting glucose, defined as fasting glucose ≥ 100 mg/dL, based on the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) definition [2]. Diabetes was defined as either fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL, a referral diagnosis of diabetes, or antidiabetic treatment.

                      Measurement of baPWV

                      All subjects abstained from caffeine-containing food or beverages for at least 45 minutes prior to baPWV measurement. After a subject had been resting in the supine position for at least 5 minutes in a quiet room, blood pressure and baPWV were measured using an automated waveform analyzer (Colin VP-2000, Colin Medical Instruments Corp., Komaki, Japan). Pneumatic cuffs were wrapped around both upper arms and ankles and connected to a plethysmographic sensor to determine the volume pulse waveform; the higher value of blood pressure was used for analysis. The highest value of baPWV measured on either side of each patient was used for analysis.

                      Measurement of carotid IMT and plaques

                      Carotid IMT was measured using high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography (Acuson X300, Siemens, USA) with a transducer frequency of 13–15 MHz. Computer-assisted acquisition, processing, B-mode images storage, and calculation of IMT were performed using the Syngo Arterial Health Package (Siemens, USA). Automatic measurements from both common carotid arteries were made at the far wall of the 1-cm segment distal to the carotid bulbs. The mean value of carotid IMT was used for analysis. All carotid IMT measurements were taken at sites free of any discrete plaques. Carotid plaque was defined as the presence of focal wall thickening at least 50% greater than that of the surrounding vessel wall or as a focal region with a carotid IMT greater than 1.5 mm, protruding into the lumen and distinct from the neighboring boundary [10, 11].

                      Statistical analysis

                      Clinical and biochemical characteristics are shown according to the presence of diabetes and MS. Values are expressed as mean ± SD. Continuous variables were compared using Student’s t-test, and categorical variables were compared using the χ2 test. Differences in baPWV and carotid IMT with respect to each MS component were tested using ANCOVA separately for individuals with and without diabetes. Correlational analysis between the number of MS components, and baPWV and carotid IMT according to diabetes status was performed using Pearson’s correlation test. Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the significance of confounding risk factors for baPWV and carotid IMT. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the significant risk factors for carotid plaques. SPSS version 18 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for all statistical analyses. All statistical tests were 2-tailed, and p < 0.05 was considered significant.

                      Results

                      Clinical characteristics

                      The clinical characteristics of the 2,560 participants (60 ± 8 years, 33% men) in this study are shown in Table 1. This study included 2,149 non-diabetics (84%) and 411 diabetics (16%). Both non-diabetics and diabetics were classified into 2 subgroups based on the presence of MS. The prevalence of AHA/NHLBI-defined MS in the present study was 40%; 667 non-diabetics (31%) and 285 diabetics (69%) were classified as having MS, respectively.
                      Table 1

                      Clinical characteristics of the study subjects

                      Characteristics

                      No diabetes

                      p

                      Type 2 diabetes

                      p

                      Total (n = 2149)

                      No metabolic syndrome (n = 1482)

                      Metabolic syndrome (n = 667)

                      Total (n = 411)

                      No metabolic syndrome (n = 126)

                      Metabolic syndrome (n = 285)

                      Age (years)

                      60 ± 8

                      59 ± 8

                      62 ± 7

                      <0.001

                      63 ± 8 *

                      63 ± 7

                      63 ± 8

                      0.354

                      Men, n (%)

                      638 (30%)

                      428 (29%)

                      210 (32%)

                      0.222

                      204 (50%) *

                      68 (54%)

                      136 (48%)

                      0.243

                      Waist circumference (cm)

                      83 ± 8

                      81 ± 8

                      88 ± 7

                      <0.001

                      88 ± 8 *

                      81 ± 7

                      90 ± 8

                      <0.001

                      Body mass index (kg/m2)

                      24.7 ± 2.9

                      24.0 ± 2.7

                      26.3 ± 2.8

                      <0.001

                      25.5 ± 3.2 *

                      23.3 ± 2.2

                      26.5 ± 3.1

                      <0.001

                      Smoking, n (%)

                      521 (24%)

                      336 (23)

                      185 (28%)

                      0.011

                      174 (42%) *

                      52 (41%)

                      122 (43%)

                      0.771

                      Heart rate (bpm)

                      66 ± 9

                      66 ± 9

                      67 ± 10

                      0.080

                      70 ± 10 *

                      69 ± 10

                      70 ± 10

                      0.304

                      SBP (mmHg)

                      122 ± 15

                      119 ± 14

                      128 ± 15

                      <0.001

                      128 ± 15 *

                      124 ± 15

                      130 ± 15

                      <0.001

                      DBP (mmHg)

                      74 ± 10

                      72 ± 9

                      77 ± 10

                      <0.001

                      76 ± 10 *

                      73 ± 9

                      77 ± 10

                      <0.001

                      Antihypertensive drugs, n (%)

                      843 (39%)

                      416 (28%)

                      427 (64%)

                      <0.001

                      251 (61%) *

                      46 (37%)

                      205 (72%)

                      <0.001

                      Total cholesterol (mg/dL)

                      202 ± 35

                      202 ± 35

                      200 ± 35

                      0.379

                      187 ± 39 *

                      185 ± 34

                      187 ± 41

                      0.493

                      Triglyceride (mg/dL)

                      126 ± 67

                      105 ± 47

                      173 ± 80

                      <0.001

                      144 ± 85 *

                      96 ± 34

                      165 ± 92

                      <0.001

                      HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)

                      55 ± 15

                      59 ± 14

                      46 ± 12

                      <0.001

                      50 ± 13 *

                      57 ± 11

                      47 ± 13

                      <0.001

                      LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)

                      124 ± 32

                      124 ± 32

                      124 ± 33

                      0.929

                      110 ± 35 *

                      109 ± 31

                      111 ± 36

                      0.524

                      Lipid lowering drugs, n (%)

                      571 (27%)

                      384 (26%)

                      187 (28%)

                      0.302

                      149 (36%) *

                      45 (36%)

                      104 (37%)

                      0.880

                      Creatinine (mg/dL)

                      0.78 ± 0.18

                      0.78 ± 0.18

                      0.79 ± 0.18

                      0.029

                      0.82 ± 0.22 *

                      0.81 ± 0.24

                      0.83 ± 0.21

                      0.464

                      FBS (mg/dL)

                      95 ± 9

                      93 ± 8

                      100 ± 10

                      <0.001

                      132 ± 33 *

                      128 ± 36

                      133 ± 32

                      0.187

                      Antidiabetic treatments, n (%)

                      -

                      -

                      -

                      -

                      347 (84%) *

                      112 (89%)

                      235 (83%)

                      0.097

                      Duration of diabetes (months)

                      -

                      -

                      -

                      -

                      117 ± 91

                      131 ± 102

                      110 ± 85

                      0.058

                      baPWV (cm/s)

                      1476 ± 250

                      1438 ± 230

                      1562 ± 271

                      <0.001

                      1641 ± 284 *

                      1609 ± 273

                      1655 ± 288

                      0.133

                      Carotid IMT (mm)

                      0.76 ± 0.20

                      0.73 ± 0.19

                      0.81 ± 0.22

                      <0.001

                      0.84 ± 0.26 *

                      0.83 ± 0.25

                      0.84 ± 0.26

                      0.773

                      Carotid plaques, n (%)

                      453 (21%)

                      273 (18%)

                      180 (27%)

                      <0.001

                      148 (36%) *

                      51 (41%)

                      97 (34%)

                      0.222

                      Data are expressed as n (%) or mean ± SD. baPWV, brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; FBS, fasting blood sugar; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; IMT, intima–medial thickness; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; SBP, systolic blood pressure. *p < 0.001 vs. no diabetes.

                      Differences in SCA parameters according to the presence of MS and diabetes

                      The mean baPWV, carotid IMT, and prevalence of carotid plaques were significantly higher in diabetics than non-diabetics (baPWV: 1641 ± 284 vs. 1476 ± 250 cm/s, p < 0.001; carotid IMT: 0.84 ± 0.26 vs. 0.76 ± 0.20 mm, p < 0.001; carotid plaques: 36vs.21%, p < 0.001). Subjects with MS had significantly higher baPWV and carotid IMT as well as more plaques than those without MS among only non-diabetics (baPWV: 1562 ± 271 vs. 1438 ± 230 cm/s, p < 0.001; carotid IMT: 0.81 ± 0.22 vs. 0.73 ± 0.19 mm, p < 0.001; carotid plaques: 27 vs. 18%, p < 0.001) (Table 1 and Figure 1). Data related to comparison of SCA parameters between 4 groups are provided in Additional file 1: Table S1.
                      http://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1475-2840-12-41/MediaObjects/12933_2013_Article_616_Fig1_HTML.jpg
                      Figure 1

                      Comparison of SCA parameters according to the presence of MS and diabetes. (a) baPWV, (b) carotid IMT. DM, diabetes mellitus.

                      Impact of individual MS component on SCA parameters according to diabetes status

                      After adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, LDL, and BMI, MS components including increased blood pressure, triglycerides and fasting glucose as well as decreased HDL were significantly associated with higher baPWV in non-diabetics. MS components including increased waist circumference and blood pressure, and decreased HDL were significantly associated with higher carotid IMT in non-diabetics. Increased blood pressure was significantly associated with a higher risk of carotid plaques and the exacerbation of all parameters of SCA in non-diabetics. However, increased blood pressure was only significantly associated with higher baPWV among all MS components and no components of MS affected other SCA parameters in diabetics (Table 2).
                      Table 2

                      Parameters of SCA according to the presence of MS components in both non-diabetics and diabetics

                      Characteristic

                      n

                      baPWV (cm/s)

                      Carotid IMT (mm)

                      Carotid plaques OR (95% CI)

                      No diabetes

                          

                      Increased waist circumference

                          

                      No

                      1020

                      1471 ± 8

                      0.74 ± 0.01

                      1.00

                      Yes

                      1129

                      1482 ± 7

                      0.78 ± 0.01 *

                      0.96 (0.73–1.27)

                      Increased blood pressure

                          

                      No

                      1008

                      1393 ± 7

                      0.73 ± 0.01

                      1.00

                      Yes

                      1131

                      1550 ± 6 *

                      0.78 ± 0.01 *

                      2.03 (1.59–2.59) *

                      Increased triglycerides

                          

                      No

                      1584

                      1458 ± 5

                      0.76 ± 0.01

                      1.00

                      Yes

                      565

                      1528 ± 9 *

                      0.76 ± 0.01

                      0.97 (0.76–1.24)

                      Decreased HDL

                          

                      No

                      1504

                      1467 ± 6

                      0.75 ± 0.01

                      1.00

                      Yes

                      645

                      1497 ± 9

                      0.78 ± 0.01 *

                      1.15 (0.92–1.45)

                      Increased fasting glucose

                          

                      No

                      1523

                      1467 ± 6

                      0.76 ± 0.01

                      1.00

                      Yes

                      626

                      1500 ± 9

                      0.76 ± 0.01

                      1.10 (0.87–1.40)

                      Type 2 diabetes

                          

                      Increased waist circumference

                          

                      No

                      145

                      1657 ± 26

                      0.84 ± 0.02

                      1.00

                      Yes

                      266

                      1632 ± 18

                      0.84 ± 0.02

                      0.81 (0.47–1.41)

                      Increased blood pressure

                          

                      No

                      95

                      1534 ± 27

                      0.81 ± 0.03

                      1.00

                      Yes

                      316

                      1673 ± 14 *

                      0.84 ± 0.01

                      1.16 (0.70–1.95)

                      Increased triglycerides

                          

                      No

                      282

                      1637 ± 16

                      0.83 ± 0.02

                      1.00

                      Yes

                      129

                      1650 ± 23

                      0.85 ± 0.02

                      1.04 (0.65–1.65)

                      Decreased HDL

                          

                      No

                      264

                      1649 ± 16

                      0.84 ± 0.02

                      1.00

                      Yes

                      147

                      1627 ± 22

                      0.84 ± 0.02

                      1.06 (0.68–1.66)

                      Data are expressed as mean ± SD. All models are adjusted for age, gender, smoking status, LDL, and BMI. baPWV, brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; IMT, intima–medial thickness; LDL, low-density lipoprotein. *p < 0.001; p < 0.01; p < 0.05.

                      Relationship between the number of MS components and SCA parameters according to diabetes status

                      The number of MS components was significantly correlated with baPWV and carotid IMT in non-diabetics (baPWV: r = 0.302, p < 0.001; carotid IMT: r = 0.217, p < 0.001). However, it was not significantly correlated with either in diabetics (baPWV: r = 0.022, p = 0.660; carotid IMT: r = −0.003, p = 0.958) (Figure 2).
                      http://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1475-2840-12-41/MediaObjects/12933_2013_Article_616_Fig2_HTML.jpg
                      Figure 2

                      Correlations between the number of MS components, and baPWV and carotid IMT. (a) Non-diabetics, (b) diabetics.

                      Impact of MS and diabetes on SCA parameters

                      Multiple linear regression analysis for baPWV and carotid IMT was performed using age, gender, smoking status, BMI, LDL, MS, and diabetes (Table 3). The results showed that age (β = 14.516, p < 0.001), male sex (β = 52.753, p < 0.001), MS (β = 87.450, p < 0.001), and diabetes (β = 87.408, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with baPWV. Meanwhile, age (β = 0.010, p < 0.001), male sex (β = 0.057, p = 0.001), LDL cholesterol (β = 0.001, p < 0.001), MS (β = 0.042, p < 0.001), and diabetes (β = 0.031, p = 0.005) were significantly associated with carotid IMT. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed for carotid plaques using the same covariates (Table 3). The results showed that age (odds ratio [OR], 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07–1.10; p < 0.001), male sex (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.00–1.85; p = 0.050), MS (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.01–1.57; p = 0.041), and diabetes (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.17–1.93; p = 0.002) were significantly associated with the prevalence of carotid plaques.
                      Table 3

                      Multiple linear logistic regression analysis of the determinants of baPWV, and carotid IMT and plaques

                       

                      baPWV

                      Carotid IMT

                      Carotid plaques

                       

                      β

                      SE

                      p

                      β

                      SE

                      p

                      OR (95% CI)

                      p

                      Age

                      14.516

                      0.569

                      <0.001

                      0.010

                      0.001

                      <0.001

                      1.08 (1.07–1.10)

                      <0.001

                      Sex (male)

                      52.753

                      14.365

                      <0.001

                      0.057

                      0.013

                      <0.001

                      1.36 (1.00–1.85)

                      0.050

                      Smoking

                      −8.674

                      15.121

                      0.571

                      −0.013

                      0.013

                      0.307

                      1.37 (0.99–1.88)

                      0.054

                      BMI

                      2.933

                      1.603

                      0.067

                      0.002

                      0.001

                      0.199

                      0.99 (0.96–1.03)

                      0.576

                      LDL

                      0.257

                      0.136

                      0.059

                      0.001

                      0.001

                      <0.001

                      1.00 (0.99–1.00)

                      0.786

                      MS

                      87.450

                      10.394

                      <0.001

                      0.042

                      0.009

                      <0.001

                      1.26 (1.01–1.57)

                      0.041

                      Diabetes

                      87.408

                      12.802

                      <0.001

                      0.031

                      0.011

                      0.005

                      1.50 (1.17–1.93)

                      0.002

                      baPWV, brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity; BMI, body mass index; IMT, intima–medial thickness; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; MS, metabolic syndrome.

                      Discussion

                      To the best of our knowledge, the present study provides the first information on the differential impact of MS on atherosclerotic changes according to diabetes status. The AHA/NHLBI criteria were chosen because they are easy to apply to clinical and epidemiological studies, clearly define each MS component regarding medication status, and follow the current criteria of impaired fasting glucose [12].

                      Several previous studies assessed the association between MS and atherosclerosis. In the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), Scuteri et al. [13] found that subjects with MS have significantly greater carotid IMT and stiffness than subjects without MS. Nakanish et al. [14] found that clustered features of MS are closely related to the risk of increased aortic PWV in middle-aged Japanese men. However, these studies raised substantial concerns about age-associated increases in vascular stiffness and thickness. Furthermore, they did not consider that MS was not a clinical diagnosis but rather a pre-morbid condition for the development of diabetes, which is closely associated with atherosclerosis. The present study revealed that subjects with MS had greater baPWV, carotid IMT, and plaques than those without MS among non-diabetics. However, this impact of MS on SCA was not observed in subjects with establish diabetes, although both MS and diabetes were independently associated with all vascular parameters after considering risk factors. In addition, the number of MS components was significantly associated with increases in vascular stiffness and thickness in only non-diabetics. Considering the differential impact of MS on SCA according to the presence of diabetes, it might be important to identify the presence of MS in non-diabetic individuals. However, a concurrent diagnosis of MS in individuals with established diabetes might be of little value for the risk stratification of CVD.

                      The present study identified different impacts of the individual components of MS on SCA, including vascular stiffness and thickness, according to diabetes status. Vascular stiffness reflected by baPWV was influenced by several MS components in non-diabetics, including increased blood pressure, triglyceride, and fasting glucose as well as decreased HDL. However, only increased blood pressure affected vascular stiffness in diabetics. This might be closely associated with the concrete relationship between baPWV and blood pressure irrespective of diabetes status. On the contrary, vascular thickness reflected in carotid IMT and plaque was influenced by MS components, including increased waist circumference and blood pressure, and decreased HDL; however, no MS components significantly affected vascular thickness in diabetics. These results suggest that the progression of atherosclerosis might be directly dependent upon hyperglycemia in patients with established diabetes status [15, 16] but might be influenced by multiple CV risk factors, especially the component of increased blood pressure [17], in patients with a status of MS without diabetes.

                      MS has recently been promoted as a means of identifying the risk of diabetes development. Gupta et al. [18] found that both impaired fasting glucose and MS can predict the risk of new-onset diabetes and that MS is a better predictor of the risk of new-onset diabetes in hypertensive patients. In contrast, Stern et al. [19] reported that MS is inferior to the Framingham Risk Score, an established predictive model for either type 2 diabetes or CVD. In the present study, although we did not analyze the significance of MS as a predictor of type 2 diabetes development, diabetics had a significantly greater risk of SCA than non-diabetics, independent of MS status. These results suggest that diabetes strongly influences atherosclerosis independent of MS and highlight importance of identifying the new development of diabetes in non-diabetics with MS.

                      MS and diabetes share many common characteristics; 65–85% of diabetic individuals have MS [2022]. However, only a few studies have examined the effect of the combination of MS and diabetes on the risk of CVD, and their results are inconsistent. Malik et al. [23] showed that individuals with MS but not diabetes have increased risks of CHD and CVD, and that diabetes predicts CHD, CVD, and overall mortality. Alexander et al. [21] reported that the prevalence of CHD is substantially higher in subjects with both diabetes and MS than in those with only diabetes. Tong et al. [22] showed that the presence of MS is associated with an increased risk of CHD in Chinese individuals with diabetes. On the contrary, Church et al. [24] reported that the presence of diabetes is associated with a 3-fold greater CVD mortality risk and that MS status does not affect this risk in men from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS). In addition, while MS and diabetes confer an increased risk of CVD, recent evidence suggests that subjects with these conditions have a wide range of increased risks [2527]. Malik et al. [26] reported that subjects with MS or diabetes have low risks of CHD when carotid IMT or coronary artery calcium (CAC) is not elevated. Furthermore, they reported that CAC predicts CVD and CHD events better than carotid IMT. Wong et al. [27] reported that subjects with MS and diabetes have a greater incidence and progression of CAC than those without these conditions; moreover, progression also predicts CHD events in those with MS and diabetes. The evaluation of baPWV and carotid IMT in the present study might be insufficient to stratify the CV risk in diabetic individuals because these SCA markers were not significantly different between diabetics with and without MS. Therefore, further investigations might be required for complete CV risk stratification and should include the assessment of morphological and functional vascular damage as well as serological markers in patients with MS and diabetes.

                      MS is a pre-morbid condition rather than a clinical diagnosis and has been advocated as a useful clinical tool for predicting diabetes and CVD. Although a number of different definitions of MS include diabetes as a diagnostic criterion of MS, the World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended that the conditions of established diabetes or CVD should be excluded in the definition of MS and proposed research that justifies the inclusion of type 2 diabetes in the definition [7]. Given the current controversy over the definition of the MS, the present result that diabetes strongly influences SCA irrespective of the presence of MS is good evidence arguing against the inclusion of patients with established type 2 diabetes in the domain of MS.

                      This study has some limitations. First, the criteria of MS might be dependent on race and ethnicity [28]. However, the present study included only a Korean population. Second, the impact of MS on the progression of atherosclerosis might somewhat differ according to age group [29]. However, no sub-analysis of SCA according to age group was not performed because the participants of this study were relatively older. Third, a previous study reported that dynamic endurance training favorably affects most of the CV risk factors related to MS [30]. However, we did not evaluate the physical activity of participants. Fourth, there were relatively few subjects with diabetes compared to those without diabetes because our study was a community-based cohort study. Fifth, we could not eliminate the possible effects of underlying disease and medication for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes on atherosclerosis because of the observational design of this study. Finally, we did not evaluate the degree of hyperglycemic control using HbA1c in diabetic patients. Further prospective studies with larger sample sizes are required to address these issues.

                      Conclusions

                      In conclusion, MS has an incremental impact on SCA in conditions without diabetes. The identification of MS and its individual components is more important for the risk stratification of CVD in non-diabetic individuals.

                      Abbreviations

                      ACLS: 

                      Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study

                      AHA/NHLBI: 

                      American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

                      baPWV: 

                      Brachial–ankle Pulse Wave Velocity

                      BLSA: 

                      Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

                      BMI: 

                      Body Mass Index

                      CAC: 

                      Coronary Artery Calcium

                      CHD: 

                      Coronary Heart Disease

                      CI: 

                      Confidence Interval

                      CV: 

                      Cardiovascular

                      CVD: 

                      Cardiovascular Disease

                      DBP: 

                      Diastolic Blood Pressure

                      FBS: 

                      Fasting Blood Sugar

                      HDL: 

                      High-Density Lipoprotein

                      IMT: 

                      Intima–Medial Thickness

                      LDL: 

                      Low-Density Lipoprotein

                      MS: 

                      Metabolic Syndrome

                      OR: 

                      Odd Ratio

                      SBP: 

                      Systolic Blood Pressure

                      SCA: 

                      Subclinical Atherosclerosis

                      SD: 

                      Standard Deviation

                      WHO: 

                      World Health Organization.

                      Declarations

                      Acknowledgements

                      This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea, funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2012027176).

                      Authors’ Affiliations

                      (1)
                      Department of Cardiology, Myongji Cardiovascular Center, Kwandong University College of Medicine
                      (2)
                      Department of Cardiology, Yonsei Cardiovascular Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine
                      (3)
                      Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine
                      (4)
                      Severance Biomedical Science Institute
                      (5)
                      Yonsei Cardiovascular Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine

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